Course code PārZ3092

Credit points 4.50

Microbiology and Hygiene

Total Hours in Course120

Number of hours for lectures16

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes16

Number of hours for laboratory classes16

Independent study hours72

Date of course confirmation24.02.2021

Responsible UnitInstitute of Food

Course developers

author Pārtikas institūts

Anita Blija

Dr. sc. ing.


Līga Skudra

Dr. sc. ing.

Course abstract

Students acquire knowledge about classical microbiology and microbiology of food products, development of microorganisms and their impact on the quality of food products. Within the framework of the study course students acquire knowledge about basic hygiene issues, provision of a suitable environment for good hygiene practices in a catering enterprise, the impact of sanitary conditions and personal hygiene on the quality of food products.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knowledge and critical understanding of the microflora of food products and the theoretical basic questions of hygiene - 1st and 2nd test.
Know the main determinants of the development of the microflora of food products and the factors influencing the company's hygienic environment – 3rd and 4th test.
Skills to perform microbiological analyses of food products, analyse analytically the obtained results, make decisions and find creative solutions - laboratory works.
Skills to carry out a hygienic assessment of the catering company, formulate problems and find solutions by explaining and substantiating them, discussing methods and means of hygienic environment - practical works.
The competence acquired knowledge and practical skills to solve problems related to microbiology and hygiene, understand professional ethics, evaluate the impact of professional activities on the environment and society – 1st and 2nd homework.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Morphology of microorganisms, chemical composition of cells. (Lecture – 1h; Laboratory works - 2h).
2. Physiology of microorganisms. (Lecture – 1h; Laboratory works - 2h).
3. Enzymes and metabolic processes of microorganisms. (Lecture – 1h; Laboratory works - 2h).
4. Distribution of microorganisms in nature. Air, water, soil microflora and its relationship with food. (Lecture – 1h; Laboratory works - 4h).
5. Influence of external factors on the development of microorganisms. Biotic factors (symbiosis, metabiosis, antagonism). (Lecture - 1h; Laboratory works - 2h). Morphology of microorganisms, metabolic processes and the influence of environmental factors on their development - Test 1.
6. Protein and fat transformation by microorganisms. Carbohydrate conversion by microorganisms. (Lecture - 1 h; Laboratory works - 2 h).
7. Characterization of pathogenic microorganisms. Food toxicosis. Presentation of homework-discussion on pathogenic microorganisms causing food intoxication and food infections and their development in prepared foods (Lecture - 1h; Laboratory works - 2h).
8. Foodborne infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms. (Lecture - 1h). Changes in proteins, carbohydrates and fats in food products as a result of microorganisms - Test 2.
9. Basic principles of hygiene. Good hygiene practice steps. Sources of pollution. (Lecture - 1h; Practical works - 2h).
10. Hygienic description of the design, construction and environment of the catering enterprise. (Lecture - 1h; Practical works - 2h).
11. Hygienic design of premises, equipment, facilities. Surfaces materials. (Lecture - 1h; Practical works - 2h).
12. Lighting, ventilation, heating, water supply. (Lecture - 1h; Practical works - 2h). Theoretical basic questions of hygiene - 3rd test.
13. Waste management. (Lecture - 1h; Practical works - 2h).
14. Sanitary regime in the catering enterprise. Insect and rodent control. (Lecture - 1h; Practical works - 4h).
15. Personal hygiene. Presentation of the homework-discussion on the hygienic assessment of the enterprise in accordance with the requirements of the stages of good hygiene practice (Lecture - 1h; Practical works - 2h).
16. Non-microbial food poisoning. (Lecture - 1h). Factors influencing the hygienic environment of the company - Test 4.

Requirements for awarding credit points

Exam of the study course consists from:
• written examination of the theoretical subjects acquired in the study course (25%);
• developed and passed 5 laboratory works and 4 practical works (25%);
• passed 4 tests (25%);
• developed, presented and passed 2 homeworks (25%).

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

1st homework. Pathogenic microorganisms that cause food intoxication and food contamination and their development in prepared foods (submitted electronically), students present their work and participate in the discussion.
2nd homework. Hygienic assessment of the catering company according to requirements of the good hygiene practice (submitted electronically), students present their work and participate in the discussion.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The assessment of the study course exam depends on the exam's assessment and accumulative assessment of the tests, laboratory, practical and home works.
Student can get a successful test mark if at least 50% of the test questions was be answered correctly.
The homework was be evaluated in accordance with the assessment procedure established therein.
The exam mark was be calculated as the mean of the exam and the mean of the semester mark, which is calculated as the mean of the test, laboratory, practical and homework mark.

Compulsory reading

1. Food science and technology: new research. L. V. Greco and M. N. Bruno, editors. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2008. - xiii, 482 p.lpp.
2. Food hygiene: basic texts. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. 4th ed. Rome: WHO: FAO, 2009., 125 lpp.
3. Sprenger R.ichard A. Hygiene for management: a text for food safety courses /Richard A. Sprenger. Doncaster: Highfield.Co.UK Ltd, 2005.416 lpp.
4. Fehlhuaber K., Kleer J., Fley F. Handbuch Lebensmittelhygiene. Hamburg, Deutchland: Behr’ Verlag Hamburg, Deutchland, 2008.
5. Nikolajeva V. (2014) Pārtikas mikrobioloģija. Rīga, LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2014. 142 lpp.

Further reading

1. Adams M. R.‏ (2016) Food microbiology. University of Surrey., Guildford, UK. Kambridge, UK,: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016. 546 p.
Codex alimentarius: food hygiene: basic texts. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.3rd ed. Rome: FAO: WHO, 2004. 68 lpp.

Periodicals and other sources

Nozaru labas higiēnas un labas ražošanas prakses vadlīnijas. Pieejams
Eiropas Parlamenta un Padomes regula (EK) Nr.852/2004. Pieejams


Obligatory study course for the professional bachelor study programm Catering and Hotel Management, 1st study course level.