Course code PārZ2060

Credit points 12

Milk Processing Technology

Total Hours in Course324

Number of hours for lectures60

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes8

Number of hours for laboratory classes60

Independent study hours196

Date of course confirmation20.03.2018

Responsible UnitInstitute of Food

Course developers

author prof.

Inga Ciproviča

Dr. sc. ing.

author prof.

Sandra Muižniece-Brasava

Dr. sc. ing.

author Pārtikas institūts

Jeļena Zagorska

Dr. sc. ing.

Prior knowledge

Ķīmi2018, Food Organic Chemistry

Ķīmi2019, Physical and Colloidal Chemistry

Ķīmi2020, Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry

Ķīmi2021, Biochemistry

PārZ2064, Food microbiology

PārZ3088, Food Processing Equipment

PārZ4060, Food Additives

Course abstract

The aim of the study course “Milk Processing Technology” is provide knowledge of importance of processing milk of safe and health products production for consumer. The aim of the course is to create a understanding of the modern production of dairy products. Particular attention is devoted to the development of practical skills for testing of sensory, physicochemical and microbiological quality parameters for dairy products; understanding the causes of product defects; learning the operational principles of technological equipment used in the manufacture of dairy products, including packaging, and measures for product safety monitoring.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

1. Should be familiar with the essential information on the manufacturing technologies for dairy products, the operation of technological equipment, packaging technologies and materials for the period of validity –1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 test.
2. There is an understanding of the physical, chemical and microbial processes undergoing production — 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Laboratory works 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16.
3. Skills to explain the causes of product defects and their prevention capabilities by linking milk composition, quality and technological processes, competence in the quality control and risk management of dairy products, development of innovative products. – 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Laboratory works 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, seminars.

4. Competence. Capable of: collecting and analysing the information obtained; addressing problems related to the dairy sector; accepting appropriate, acting individually and within the team. Practical work, seminars

Course Content(Calendar)

/ Course plan, Technology–T (40h+40h), Technological equipment –T.e. (12h+12h), Packaging – P (4h+4h), Sensory evaluation–S (4 h+4h), HACCP–H (8 h
1. L. Preliminary lecture. Synthesis and secretion of milk, composition (milk of different agricultural animals), production (breakdown by country, production volumes, prices) (2 h, /T). Characteristics of individual milk ingredients (water, protein (distribution techniques), lipids, lactose, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, bactericides and antibodies) (4 h, T).
L. w. Analysis of the chemical composition of milk (protein, fat, lactose, dry matter content by different methods) (3 h, T).
L. w. Milk protein coagulation techniques (3 h, T).
2. L. Milk quality, regulatory legislation, internal company standards and requirements; sensory, physicochemical and microbiological indicators, quality factors. Quality control needs and capabilities (4 h, T).
L. w. The importance of milk quality (acidity, pH determination, freezing temperature, antibiotic presence with different method) and microbiological quality analysis (total, enterobacterea, lactic acid bacteria) and milk storage temperature (5 h, T in collaboration with the manufacturer).
1. Test
3. L. Mechanical (cooling, filtration, separation, bactofugation, microfiltration, standartisation, decontamination) and heat treatment (types, meaning, affecting milk ingredients) of milk (2 h, T).
L. w. Milk separation, standartisation, calculations, determination of fat content, preparation of normalized mixture, homogenisation (3 h, T)
L.: Machinery for mechanical and thermal treatment of milk, principle of operation (3 h, T.e).
L. w.: Acquisition of the operation of installations (3 h, T.e.).
4. L. Acquisition of heat-treated milk and cream (2 h, T).
L. w.: Calculation of heat treatment regimes, verification of effectiveness and impact on milk quality (2 h T, 3 h T.e.).
2. Test
5. L. Characteristics of technology, main components of acid milk drinks (3 h, T).
L. w. Verification of starter and the effects of various factors on the quality of acid milk products, analysis of lactic acid bacteria (5 h, T).
6. L. Manufacture of dairy products (2 h, T). Equipment for production fermented products (2 h, T.e.).
L. w. Assessment of factors affecting whey synthesesis, assessment of the quality of cottage cheese (3 h, T).
L. w. Acquisition of the operational principle of equipment (2 h, T.e.).
3. Test
7. L. Packaging materials, equipment, principles (2 h, T.e.) for dairy products (liquid and paste).
L. w. Selection and machinery of packaging materials for products (2 h, T.e.).
8. L. Classification of ice cream, raw materials, recipes, calculations, production, ice cream equipment (1 h, T).
L. w. Ice cream preparation and quality assessment (3 h, T).
L. w. Principles for the operation of refrigeration and refrigeration equipment (2 h, T.e.).
4. Test
9. L. Classification, quality and production of butter and its products, butter-making facilities (2 h, T +2 h, T.e.).
L. w. Preparation and quality assessment of butter (3 h, T).
10. L. Cheese, manufacturing processes, assistive products, equipment (4 h, T+ 2 h, T.e.).
L. w. Preparation of cheese, evaluation of cheese quality and microflora (2 h+2h, T).
5. Test
11. 1. L. Cheese production technology, biochemical processes for cheese ripening (4 h, T).
L. w. Fresh cheese production (3 h, T).
12. L. Packing, types, materials, equipment of preserved butter, cheese and milk (2 h, P).
L. w. Product packaging solutions (2 h, P).
6. Test
13. L. Milk conservation technology, plants (2 h, T +2 h, T.e)
L. w. Operation of evaporation and drying equipment, newest solutions (2 h, T.e).
L. w. Evaluation of the quality of condensed milk (2 h, T).
14. L. By-products of the milk industry, processing technologies and plants (2 h, T).
L. w. Principles for the operation of membrane equipment and use of derived products to create new products (3 h, T).
7. Test
15. L. Principles, methods, standards (4 h, S) for the sensory evaluation of milk products.
L. w. Base for sensory evaluation of milk products (4 h, S).
16. P. w. Product safety, definition and monitoring of control and critical control points (8 h, H).
8. Test

Requirements for awarding credit points

• All laboratory works have been attended, developed and defended.
• Successfully written theoretical tests (8 tests)
• Successfully written and defended individual work.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Individual work in the library, developing own-initiative work and preparing workshops based on the results of laboratory work.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The assessment of the study course examination with score depends on:
• the cumulative assessment of the study course -test,
• evaluation of laboratory works and independent work.
The examination mark shall be calculated as the arithmetic mean of the seven tests and the assessment of independent works, calculated as the arithmetic mean of the tests marks of the study course.
A student can get a successful test mark (questions in both test and short response options) if at least 50% of the questions are answered correctly.

The student shall defend the works of the laboratory by oral means, in response to questions, related to the practical and theoretical basis of the work, by evaluating the results of the work of the laboratory in the form of a discussion within the group.

Compulsory reading

Walstra, Pieter. Dairy science and technology [elektroniskais resurss] / Pieter Walstra, Jan T.M. Wouters, T.J. Geurts. 2nd ed. Boca Raton : CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2006. 782 lpp.: il. Food science and technology ; 146 . Grāmata izdota arī iespiestā veidā. ISBN 9781420028010 (e-book: PDF).
Milk processing and quality management / edited by Adnan Y. Tamime. Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Malden, MA : Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. xviii, 324 lpp.: il., tab.; 25 cm. Society of Dairy Technology series . ISBN 9781405145305
Milk and dairy products in human nutrition / technical editors Ellen Muehlhoff, Anthony Bennett, Deirdre McMahon; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2013. xxvi, 376 p.

Piena pārstrādes tehnoloģija : [mācību grāmata] / Lilita Ozola, Inga Ciproviča. Jelgava : LLU, Pārtikas tehnoloģijas fakultāte, 2002.

Further reading

Крусь Г.Н, Храмцов А. Г.., Волокитина Э. В., Карпычев С. В. (2006). Технология молока и молочных продуктов. Москва “Колос”, 455 с.
Бредихин C.A., Космодемьянский Ю.В. (2003) Технология и техника переработки молока. Москва: Колос. 400 стр.
Востроилов А.В., Семёнова И.Н. (2010) Основы переработки молока и экспертиза качества молочных продуктов. Санкт-Петербург: ГИОРД. 512 стр.
Pārtikas produktu tehnoloģija: starpaugstskolu akadēmiskā maģistra studiju programma "Uzturzinātne": mācību materiāls / Daina Kārkliņa, Inga Ciproviča. Rīga] : LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, c2008, 93 lpp.

Periodicals and other sources

Internet resources – key words: milk, dairy products, equipment for milk processing.


Compulsory study course in the academic bachelor's programm "Food Quality and Innovations".