Course code MežZ3066

Credit points 4.50


Total Hours in Course120

Number of hours for lectures24

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes8

Number of hours for laboratory classes16

Independent study hours72

Date of course confirmation16.03.2021

Responsible UnitInstitute of Forest Management

Course developer

author prof.

Olga Miezīte

Dr. silv.

Replaced course

MežZB002 [GMEZB002] Silviculture

Course abstract

The sylviculture comprises studies of forest ecosystem (biocoenosis and environment) and forest typology, as well as the analyses of the forest management system and results of its application and the information to provide the knowledge to forecast and evaluate the consequences of the environmental (natural and anthpogenic) factor influences to obtain the sustainable, ecological and commercial forestry.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Acquire knowledge and ability to assess the design of forest ecosystems, calculate and justify dendrometric performance of forest stands, manage tree classification, assess species change and their role in the forest ecosystem, gain insight into swamp and meadow ecosystems — Theory 1 test work (elements of forest ecosystem structure, their relevance; dendrometers of forest stands and their assessment surveying; grassland and swamp ecosystems and their relevance) and 9 laboratory works, as well as 3 seminary.
Undertake a theoretical course on the forest typology and its practical application, can plan and explain the afforestation of the forest type with the specific tree species – Theory 2 test work (edaphic rows of forest stands and the nature of their identification, trophic groups of forest types and their application in the management of forest ecosystems) and laboratory works, as well as 2 seminary.
Acquire knowledge and characterise different types of felling. Competent in felling types and able to justify their use in forest management — Theory 3 test work (assessment and forecasting impacts of natural and anthropogenic environmental factors for productive and non-degrading forest management) and 5 laboratory works, as well as 3 seminary.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. List of lectures (24 hours) 1. The concept, structure and basic functions of the forest ecosystem. Substance and energy flow. 2. Consortia. Ecological niche. Coshares, types, types and shapes. Ecological capacity. Overpopulation of the ecosystem and reference types. 3. Forest phytocenosis structure. Tree stands. Standing. Origin. Mixed stand. Advance growth, undergrowth, ground vegetation, detrite, their biological, ecological and economic importance, their use in the forest typology. 4. Characteristics of forest stands: dominant and main tree species, bonity, thickness, density. 5. Characteristics of forest stands: forest stand composition, stand basal area, growing stock. 6. Souccesias. Classification. Stages. Clearance afforestation. Change of species. Self-development of the forest stand. 7. Latvian typology of swamps: high, low and transitional swamps. The ecological and economic importance of swamps. Protecting swamps. 8. Classification of Latvian grasslands: dry, lowland and flooding meadow. The role and protection of meadow. 9. Forest, meadow and swamp ecosystems — Contr 1. 10. Typology history. Edafakic rows. Type of forest. Breakdown of forest types into trophic groups. Practical application of the forest typology. 11. Forests on dry mineral soils (Cladinoso-callunosa, Vacciniosa, Myrtillosa, Hylocomiosa, Oxalidosa, Aegopodiosa) 12. Forests on wet mineral soils (the depth of the peat layer does not reach 30 cm) (Calluno-sphagnosa, Vaccinio-sphagnosa, Myrtilloso-sphagnosa, Myrtilloso-polytrichosa, Dryopteriosa) 13. Forests on wet peat soils (the depth of the peat layer exceeds 30 cm) (Sphagnosa, Caricoso-phragmitosa, Dryopterioso-caricosa, Filipeniidulosa). 14. Forests on drained mineral soils (the depth of the peat layer does not reach 20 cm) (Callunosa mel. Vaccioniosa - mel., Myrtillosa-mel., Mercurialiosa-mel.). 15. Forests on drained peaty soils (the depth of the peat layer exceeds 20 cm) (Callunosa turf. mel., Vacciniosa turf.mel., Myrtillosa turf.mel., Oxalidosa turf.mel.). 16. Practical use of the forest typology for forest regeneration, grooming, logging, protection and guarding. Ecological and economic compliance, target, auxiliary target, acceptable and conflict compositions. 17. Forest typology — Contr 2. 18. Types of forest use. Principial felling. Regeration cutting (clear cutting). Forest regeneration in clear cutting. Facilitating of natural regeneration. Seed trees. 19. Selection cutting. Comparison of principial felling fellings. 20. Grooming thinning. Agro-technical thinning. Of young stands or composition thinning. Commercial thinning. Landscape thinning. 21. Sanitary thinning.Cutting of deforestation. Reconstructive cutting. 22. Pruning growing trees. Future trees. 23. Increasing the yield of the groves. Impacts of natural, abiotic and anthropogenic factors on crop yields. Forestry measures to increase productivity. 24. Forest use — Contr 3. 2.List of laboratory works (16 hours) 1. Building elements of the forest stand 2. -3. Distinguishing values of forest stands 4. Classification of trees in a forest stand 5. Lighting requirements for trees and methods for determining them 6. Air temperature and forest interaction 7. Resistance of forest stands to wind gases and wind breaks 8. Forest and precipitation 9. Composition and age of the cosmus 10. Change of species and natural recovery of forest stands 11. Assessment of the natural recovery of forests 12. Maintenance of naturally restored forest stands 12. -13. Determination of parental felling effort 15. Forest management 16. Sample felling 3. List of seminars (8 hours) 1. The diversity and importance of forest ecosystems 2. Types of co-existence in different forest ecosystems 3. Types of succession and change of species and their meaning. Natural and anthropogenic restoration of forest stands 4.-5. Forest typology and its practical application 6. Forestry felling (types, objectives, tasks and role) 7. Types of main uses and their advantages and disadvantages 8. Use of all wood biomass. Increasing the productivity of forest stands

Requirements for awarding credit points

An exam. Students can get an automatic score on an exam if, during the semester, the average party of the written testing jobs shall not be less than 8.

Students who have successfully mapped out laboratory work are admitted to the exam, practical works and active participation in workshops, as well as the number of delayed lessons shall not exceed 15% of the total number of lessons.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Prepare for various testing activities (lectures and laboratory works) and seminars, studying literature and working as a work plan for it, using materials developed in lectures presentation and laboratory works.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The assessment consists of a cumulative assessment of tests, laboratory works and practical works.

The laboratory works shall be evaluated in accordance with the prescribed evaluation procedures, following written quizzes whose questions have already been given in the methodological descriptions at the beginning of each work, while the activity in the seminars is assessed on the basis of a prepared presentation (for each performance in the audience is to be prepared in 2 presentations) and how competent the student is able to engage in discussions.

Requirements and procedures for the removal of delayed lessons: laboratory works shall be recovered at the specified time and procedures, and a single opportunity shall be given for oral answering or rewriting failing quizzes.

Compulsory reading

1. Dreimanis A. Mežsaimniecības pamati, mācību līdzeklis LLU Meža fakultātes studentiem un nozares speciālistiem, A/S LVM, Jelgava: LLU Meža fakultāte, Studentu biedrība "Šalkone". 2016. 219 lpp. LLUFB – 11 eks.
2. Latvijas meža tipoloģija. Jelgava: Studentu bierība "Šalkone", 2014. 118 lpp. LLUFB – 110 eks.
3. Straupe, I., Indriksons, A., Kazāka, R. Koki, krūmi un zemsedzes augi Latvijas mežaudzēs: mācību līdzeklis. Jelgava: Studentu bierība "Šalkone", 2014. 179 lpp. LLUFB – 100 eks.
4. Zālītis P., Jansons J. Latvijas meža tipoloģija un tās sākotne. Daugavpils: Akadēmiskais apgāds "Saule", 2013. 167 lpp. LLUFB – 1 eks.
5. Zālītis P. Mežkopības priekšnosacījumi. Rīga: LVMI "Silava": Et cetera, 2006. 217 lpp. LLUFB – 7 eks.

Further reading

1. Liepa I., Mauriņš A., Vimba E. Ekoloģija un dabas aizsardzība. Rīga: Zvaigzne, 1991. 300 lpp. LLUFB – 250 eks.
2. Ekoloģija un vides aizsardzība: Mācību līdzeklis. J. Švarcbahs u.c. Jelgava: LLU, 2001. 201 lpp. LLUFB – 60 eks.
3. Meža enciklopēdija. 1. sēj. Rīga: Zelta Grauds, 2003. 367 lpp.LLUFB – 3 eks.
4. Miezīte O. 2020. Praktisko darbu metodiskie norādījumi Mežkopībā: mācību līdzeklis LLU Meža fakultātes studentiem. Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte. Meža fakultāte. Jelgava, 2020. 78 lpp. un
5. Miezīte O. Meža aizsardzība un apsardzība. I daļa Meža entomoloģija, mācību līdzeklis LLU Meža fakultātes studentiem un nozares speciālistiem, A/S LVM, Jelgava: LLU Meža fakultāte, Studentu biedrība "Šalkone". 2015. 172 lpp. LLUFB – 65 eks.
6. Miezīte O. Meža aizsardzība. II daļa Meža fitopatoloģija,mācību līdzeklis LLU Meža fakultātes studentiem un nozares speciālistiem, A/S LVM, Jelgava: LLU Meža fakultāte, Studentu biedrība "Šalkone". 2017. 173 lpp. LLUFB – 12 eks.
7. Dreimanis A. Mežsaimniecības pamati, mācību līdzeklis LLU Meža fakultātes studentiem un nozares speciālistiem, A/S LVM, Jelgava: LLU Meža fakultāte, Studentu biedrība "Šalkone". 2016. 219 lpp. LLUFB – 12 eks.


The study course is included in the compulsory part of full-time and part-time studies of the professional
higher education bachelor study program “Forest Engineer” of the Forest Faculty.