Course code LauZ2046

Credit points 6

Agricultural Resources

Total Hours in Course162

Number of hours for lectures32

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes18

Number of hours for laboratory classes14

Independent study hours98

Date of course confirmation20.04.2021

Responsible UnitInstitute of Soil and Plant Science

Course developers

author prof.

Zinta Gaile

Dr. agr.

author Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūts

Ingrīda Augšpole

Dr. sc. ing.

author Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūts

Ilze Vircava

Dr. geol.

author Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūts

Dace Siliņa

Dr. agr.

author Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūts

Aldis Kārkliņš

Dr. habil. agr.

Course abstract

Introduction to studies and speciality. Organisation of studies at LLU. The concept of nature resources. Resources usable in agriculture. Characterisation of Earth nature resources. Geophysical and geochemical characterization of the Earth and lithosphere, ongoing geological processes. Geological structure and mineral resources of Latvia, their usage possibilities. The role of climate in agricultural production. Inexhaustible non-living nature resources: water circuit in nature, solar, wind and geothermal energy. Soil, its formation and functions.

Living nature resources in agriculture. Classification of field crops. Crop production as a basic agricultural sector, its sub-sectors. Plant breeding, its importance. Organic agriculture. Weeds. The concept of crop diseases and pests. Animal resources in agriculture. Livestock production as a basic agricultural sector. Sub-sectors of livestock production. Animal breeding. Positive role of microorganisms in agriculture.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Students gain knowledge about resources, their division, importance and usage: about climate, soil, minerals, plants, animals, microorganisms. The study course provides knowledge about agriculture sector and its sub-sectors, their relation and interdependence.
Skills and their assessment.
Non-living nature resources
1. Knows the concept of nature resources and agricultural resources. Is familiar with Earth structure, its composition and is familiar with the relation of its geological processes and non-living resources (1st test).
2. Is familiar with the geological structure and minerals of Latvia, possibilities of their usage. Is familiar with the origin and supplies of non-living nature resources, is able to notice connections. Can assess the importance of climate, soil and minerals (2nd test).
3. Students recognize rocks and minerals – 2 tests on laboratory work topics, including homework evaluation.
4. Students are able to prepare synopsis or theoretical material related to non-living nature resources and to analyse the obtained information, they are able to draw conclusions and to justify their opinion – homeworks;
Living nature resources
1. Students are familiar with agricultural plant resources. They are able to define the division of agricultural sector (crop production) into sub-sectors and to evaluate their role in agriculture. Understands the concept of plant breeding and seed production – 1st test.
2. Students are familiar with agricultural animal species. They are able to define the division of agricultural sector (animal-husbandry) into sub-sectors and to evaluate their economic role. Understands the concept of animal breeding. They are able to evaluate the role of microorganisms in various agricultural production processes – 2nd test.
3. Students are able to identify the most common weeds. Weed herbarium catalogues are used in practical works – test.
4. Students are able to characterize the main crops grown in Latvia (their general characteristics and usage) – test on practical work topics.
5. Students are able to prepare presentations and informative materials on agriculture, as well as to justify their opinion – homeworks.

As a result, students are competent to choose their future study speciality: agronomy, animal husbandry or entrepreneurship in agriculture, and are prepared for further study courses.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Introduction to studies: study organisation at LLU, duties and rights of students, Constitution of LLU, structure of LLU and Faculty of Agriculture.
2. The concept of resources, their division. The concept of sustainable use of resources.
Non-living nature resources:
3. The division of Earth nature resources, their characterisation.
4. The structure, composition and formation of Earth and lithosphere.
5. Geological processes as creators of non-living nature resources.
6. Types of minerals and rocks, their role in nature resources formation – practical works.
7. The history of Earth development and mineral resources in the world.
8. Geological and geomorphological structure of Latvia.
9. Types of minerals and their resources in Latvia, their importance in agriculture.
10. Characterisation of climate and meteorological conditions in Latvia.
11. Energy resources. Concept of energy sources, their classification and usefulness.
12. The concept of soil, its role in the ecosystem. Soil formation factors and main stages.
Living nature resources
13. The concept of agriculture and living nature resources. Plant growth factors and crop production, plant classification types. Cereal production, used plant resources - 2 h.
14. Potato, oil and fibre plant, plant resources used in these sub-sectors - 2 h.
15. Sub-sectors of unconventional crop production, plant resources used in them; the concept of plant breeding and seed production. Organic agriculture. - 2 h.
16. Test: Characterisation of crop production sector, plant resources usable in agriculture - 1 h.
17. Animal resources in agriculture, livestock production as basic sector; characterisation of dairy and meat industry - 2 h.
18. Characteristics of livestock production sectors suitable for diversification of agricultural production, used animal resources. Unconventional sub-sectors of livestock production - 2 h.
19. Animal breeding and selection. Microorganisms and their role in various agricultural production processes - 2 h.

20. Test: Characterisation of livestock production, animal resources usable in agriculture - 1h.

Requirements for awarding credit points

The study course consists of 3 parts, each of which must meet the requirements described below and all tasks should be evaluated as ‘passed’ or, if a grade is given, at least 4 points should be obtained:
1. Introduction to studies – gets ‘passed’
• Lectures and 4 seminars must be attended
1. LLU Fundamental library – passed.
2. Meeting with study program director or the head of the specialization;
3. Visit to the palace museum;
4. Seminar on LLU Study Regulations
• Homework on LLU Study Regulations; evaluation: passed (no grade)
• Short written test, evaluation: passed (no grade)
2. Non-living nature resources
• Successfully passed laboratory works; evaluation: passed (no grade).
• Successfully passed seminars on topics to be independently studied, evaluation: passed (with a grade);
• Successfully passed 2 tests on theoretical and practical part, each of which should be evaluated with a “passed” (with a grade);
3. Living nature resources
• Two written tests on theory studied during the course (indicated in the course plan); successful evaluation obtained (with a grade);
• One written test on topics studied during the practical works; successful evaluation obtained (with a grade);
• Test on weed herbarium; successful evaluation obtained: passed (no grade);

• A presentation on chosen agricultural topic; successful evaluation obtained (with a grade).

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Introduction to studies
1. Homework – read LLU Study Regulations and answer questions by filling in a form (handwritten).
2. Prepares for a test on topics from lectures, seminars and homework.
Non-living nature resources
1. Systematic studies of mineral and rock collection.
2. Collects and prepares summaries or informative materials related to non-living nature resources. Performs an analysis of the information collected.
3. Prepares independently for theoretical tests.
Living nature resources
1. Independently studies the informative material on plant and animal resources (materials accessible at e-studies).
2. Studies the most popular weeds using plant herbarium and materials accessible at e-studies.

3. Prepares a presentation (5 – 7 min.) about a chosen agricultural sector.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

• The evaluation of study course exam is made cumulatively from evaluations of all 3 parts.
• In order to receive a cumulative grade, all previously described tasks should be passed with a positive evaluation: if a task is not evaluated with a grade, it has to be passed; however, if a task is evaluated with a grade from 10 point scale, the evaluation has to be at least 4 points.

• The exam grade is an arithmetical mean from the final evaluation in both parts related to resources („Living nature resources” and “Non-living nature resources”); Introduction to studies should be “passed”.

Compulsory reading

1. Augkopība (2004). A. Ružas red. Ruža A., Adamovičs A., Bankina B., Bērziņš A. u.c. Jelgava: LLU. 374 lpp.
2. Dembovskis A., Drudze I., Gailīte M., Lepse L. u.c. (2007). Dārzeņkopība. Lauka dārzeņu audzēšana. Rokasgrāmata. Pūres Dārzkopības izmēģinājumu stacija. 284 lpp.
3. Augļkopība. Red. L. Ikase. Dobeles novads: LV Augļkopības institūts, 2015. 544 lpp.
4. Grīslis Z., Garkāvijs F., Sprūžs J. (1991). Lopkopība. Rīga: Zvaigzne. 366 lpp.
5. Karpovičs A., Mešķis S., Vircava I. (2019). Praktiskie darbi inženierģeoloģijā. Rēzekne: Rēzeknes Tehnoloģiju akadēmija. 111 lpp.
6. Lapiņš D., Kažotnieks J. (2001). Laukkopība. Ozolnieki: LLKC. 247 lpp.
7. Latvija: zeme, daba, tauta, valsts: otrais laidiens (2018). O. Nikodemus, M. Kļaviņš, Z. Krišjāne, V. Zelčs (zin. red.). Rīga: Latvijas Universitātes Akadēmiskais apgāds, 752 lpp.
8. Moderna piena ražošanas ferma: tehnoloģija, tehnika, apsaimniekošana (2012). Priekuļa J. red. Jelgava: LLU. 240 lpp.
9. Segliņš V., Stinkule A., Stinkulis Ģ. (2013). Derīgie izrakteņi Latvijā. Rīga: LU. 184 lpp.

Further reading

1. Āboltiņš O. (2010). No leduslaikmeta līdz globālajai sasilšanai. Rīga: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds. 127 lpp.
2. Bambergs K. (1993). Ģeoloģija un hidroģeoloģija: mācību grāmata. Rīga: Zvaigzne. 327 lpp.
3. Ģeoloģija, augsne, agroķīmija: Metodiskie norādījumi mācību praksei. A. Kārkliņa red. Jelgava: LLU, 2008. 88 lpp.
4. Lauksaimniecības gada ziņojums. Rīga: LR Zemkopības ministrija. (Lauksaimniecības gada ziņojumi par iepriekšējiem 3 gadiem) [tiešsaiste]:
5. Miške I., Brutāne D., Žola I. (2007). Bioloģiskās augkopības pamati. Rīga: Nordic. 201 lpp.
6. Plēsums J., Osītis U., Runce A. u.c. (2005). Gaļas liellopi un liellopu gaļas audzēšana Latvijas apstākļos. Jelgava. 118 lpp.

7. Klāsēns V., Šteinberga V. (1987). Mikrobioloģija. Rīga: Zvaigzne. 190 lpp.

Periodicals and other sources

1. Agro Tops
2. Saimnieks LV
3. Latvijas Lopkopis

4. Dārzs un Drava u.c.


Compulsory study course for professional Bachelor Study Program „Agriculture” during 1st year 1st semester in both full-time and part-time studies.