Course code MašZ4049

Credit points 3

Hydraulics and Pneumatics

Total Hours in Course120

Number of hours for lectures24

Number of hours for laboratory classes24

Independent study hours72

Date of course confirmation19.01.2016

Responsible UnitInstitute of Mechanics

Course developer


Edgars Repša

Mg. sc. ing.

Prior knowledge

Fizi2013, Physics

Mate4017, Mathematics II

Course abstract

The study course explains basics of hydraulic and pneumatic machinery. Studies introduce with major functional units role, structure, operating principles and parameters, as well as framework and methodology of hydraulic and pneumatic design. Theoretical and practical learning their management systems and regulatory capacities is provided. Control and diagnostic possibility of pneumatic systems.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

1. Basic knowledges of fluid mechanics laws – Test 1.
2. The ability to evaluate fluid balance and the laws of motion, operated in liquid filled vessels, pipelines and flow through orifices, nozzles and jets in dependence of flow regime – Test 2.
3. Understands the structure and operation of static and dynamic equipment and machines, the construction and operation principles of the pumps together with the pipelines network. The construction, operation and applications of volumetric and dynamic hydraulic equipment – laboratory work.
4. The ability to analyse hydraulic and pneumatic circuit diagrams, understand the functions, applicability and operation of the apparatus used in the scheme – laboratory work.
5. Developed competencies for design and management of hydraulic and pneumatic drive systems of different mechanisms. Capacity to solve the technical issues relating to maintenance and operation of non – refusal hydraulic and pneumatic drive systems is provided – practical work.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Physical characteristics of the liquid. Hydrostatic pressure and its measurement. Differential equation of hydrostatics. (Lecture – 2 h; Laboratory work – 1 h)
2. The basics of pneumatics. Physical properties of air. Pneumatic circuits symbols and components. (Lecture – 1 h; Laboratory work – 2 h)
Test 1: Physical properties of fluids, pressure measurement and hydrostatic task.
3. Bernoulli equation for real fluid flow. Fluid in motion. Simple hydrostatic machines. (Lecture – 2 h; Laboratory work – 1 h)
4. Energy losses in pipelines. Pump curves, power and efficiency. (Lecture – 1 h; Laboratory work – 2 h)
Test 2: Bernulli equation, Reynolds criterion.
5. Cavitation. Pump operating point. Hydraulic shock. (Lecture – 2 h; Laboratory work – 1 h)
6. Hydraulic drive. Gear and vane pumps. Rotary piston pumps. Pressure relief valve. (Lecture – 1 h; Laboratory work – 2 h)
7. Pneumatic valves, flow control valves, pneumatic actuators and their constructional solutions. (Lecture – 2 h; Laboratory work – 1 h)
8. Pump unloading circuits. Hydraulic press circuit. (Lecture – 1 h; Laboratory work – 2 h)
9. Speed control equipment. Two-Way throttle and Three-Way throttle. (Lecture – 2 h; Laboratory work – 1 h)
10. Directional control valves, calculation and selection. Hydraulic actuators. Hydraulic regeneration circuit. (Lecture – 1 h; Laboratory work – 2 h)
11. Cylinder synchronizing circuit. Special elements (tanks, filters, accumulators, etc.) in circuits. (Lecture – 2 h; Laboratory work – 1 h)
12. Basic principles of hydraulic circuit design. Diagnostics of hydraulic systems. (Lecture – 1 h; Laboratory work – 2 h)
13. Proportional hydraulic drive. Proportional pressure relief valves. Proportional directional control valves. Proportional flow control. (Lecture – 2 h; Laboratory work – 1 h)
14. Compressor construction and operation principles. Air production and distribution. (Lecture – 1 h; Laboratory work – 2 h)
15. Hydraulic and pneumatic system simulation, design and applications. (Lecture – 2 h; Laboratory work – 1 h)
16. The newest in industrial hydraulic and pneumatic drives. (Lecture – 1 h; Laboratory work – 2 h)

Requirements for awarding credit points

Developed and passed laboratory and practical works, evaluated with the corresponding ball and test work – compile an accumulating test mark. The average arithmetic mean score of 2 tests, 2 practical works and 14 laboratory works.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Perform the necessary calculations for laboratory work. Prepare responses to laboratory test questions.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Developed and defended laboratory and practical works, evaluated with the corresponding ball and test work – compile an accumulating test mark (average arithmetic).
A student can obtain a successful mark on a written test if at least 50% of the test questions are answered correctly.
A student can get a positive mark for laboratory work and practical work by correctly answering at least 50% of the control questions. Checklist of control questions is issued, together with laboratory work and practical work.

Compulsory reading

1. Croser P. Pneimatika. Mācību grāmata. Rīga: Festo, 2000. 219 lpp.
2. Lielpēters P., Dorošenko R., Geriņš Ē. Fluidtehnika. Rīga, Rīgas Tehniskā universitāte, 2005. 183 lpp.
3. Lielpēters P., Ķirsis M., Kravalis K., Torims T. Fluīdu Mehānika. Rīga, RTU izdevniecība, 2009.
4. Kronbergs Ē. Hidraulika un hidropiedziņa. Metodiskie norādījumi. Jelgava, 2015. 82 lpp.

Further reading

1. Dirba V., Uiska J., Zars V. Hidraulika un hidrauliskās mašīnas. Rīga, Zvaigzne, 1980. 456 lpp.
2. Merkle D. Hidraulika: pamatlīmenis. Mācību grāmata. Rīga: Festo, 2000. 283 lpp.
3. Birzietis G., Kaķītis A., Kronbergs Ē., Mežs A., Vizbulis J. Lauksaimniecības hidraulika. Uzdevumi. [b.v.],2002. 64 lpp.

Periodicals and other sources

1. Joseph D., Renardy Y. Fundamentals of Two – Fluid Dynamics. New York: Springer, 1993. 441 p.
2. Mežs A., Vizbulis J. Tilpuma hidopiedziņa. 3. lekcija. Jelgava, 2011. 48 lpp.
3. Fluid Power Journal -


The study course is included in the professional higher education bachelor study program “Wood Processing”.