Course code LauZ4160

Credit points 3

Cattle Husbandry

Total Hours in Course120

Number of hours for lectures24

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes24

Independent study hours72

Date of course confirmation26.02.2019

Responsible UnitInstitute of Animal Science

Course developers

author prof.

Daina Kairiša

Dr. agr.

author lect.

Lāsma Cielava

Mg. agr.

Prior knowledge

LauZ2052, Feedstuffs

LauZ3145, Animal Nutrition

LauZ3153, Genetics

Vete2023, Animal Anatomy and Physiology

Course abstract

Learning of the Study course gives an idea and provides insight into the economic importance of the cattle farming, describing general situation and perspectives of the development of that specific economical field in Latvian and other countries. In the study process insight about the most popular cow breeds will be given, characteristic features and influencing factors of the productivity will be analyzed, problems and solutions of the herd reproduction will be discussed, different uses of animal evaluation methods will be reviewed.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Students will gain theoretical knowledge about suitability of different cow breeds for milk and / or meat production, breeding and feeding technologies, production and its quality assessment principles. Knowledge is assessed by the results of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th tests.
Will acquire skills in organization of milk and/or meat production process, assessment of suitability of housing technologies for different breed, age group and different using direction cows. Students will acquire skills necessary for filling herd documentation, registration of quantity of obtained production and in assessment of the traits characterizing productivity. Skills are assessed according to the explanations and conclusions given during the practical work.
As a result of the study course students will be competent to assess the suitability of the animals of the particular cow breed to the chosen production direction, to evaluate the compliance of the applied holding technology with the welfare requirements and to independently analyze the productivity and reproduction indicators of the animals. Students will be competent to recommend for the farmers the most appropriate solution for the sustainable development of the farm. The acquired competencies are evaluated by the quality of conclusions and explanations in seminars and practical works, as well as by the answers on test and exam questions.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Economic importance of cattle husbandry. Most common dairy cattle breeds. (L 3 h).
2. Dairy recording system. The registration of milk productivity data, use of databases. (Pr. w. 3 h)
3. Body conformation of dairy cows (L 2 h)
4. The growth and development control, body conformation and recording data analysis of different age cows (Pr. w. 3 h)
1. test. Body conformation and its role in milk production. (1 h)
5. Growth and development of mammary glands, milk synthesis and extraction mechanism. (L 2 h)
6. Analysis of lactation. (Pr. w. 3 h)
7. Milk composition and quality, factors influencing its changes. (L 2 h, pr. w. 3 h)
2. test. Milk composition and quality, its influencing factors. (1 h)
8. Beef production in Latvia. Specialized beef cattle breeds. (L 3 h)
9. Body conformation of beef cattle. (L 2 h, pr. w. 3 h)
10. Traits characterizing beef productivity, carcass and its quality. (L 2 h, pr. w. 3 h)
3. test. Beef productivity, its influencing factors. (1 h)
11. Herd structure and circulation, preparation of herd circulation plan (Pr. w. 3 h)
12. Reproduction problems in beef herd: the obtainment and preservation of calves. Analysis of reproduction traits. (L 2 h, pr. w. 3 h)
13. Feeding and housing of calves in different growth stages. The basic principles of calf grouping. (L 2 h)
4. test. Problems in calf rearing, possible solutions. (1h)

Requirements for awarding credit points

Successfully written 4 tests, completed and graded practical works, and passed written exam.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

The student independently studies literature, collects the obtained information, publicly presents the results of practical work.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Independent work is evaluated with a mark after the presentation of the prepared material. Positive grade receives only those presentations that are graded at least with 4 points.
Each individual practical work is evaluated after its presentation with the positive (passed) and negative (failed) grades. At the end of the practical works students are writing test, which is graded on a 10-point scale. Positive evaluation in practical work can only be achieved if all works developed have received a positive assessment.
Students who have a positive assessment in tests and practical works are admitted to the examination.
Students who receive grade higher than 7 in all forms of examination during the study course, is not obligated to take the exam, their grade is calculated from grades in theoretical course (50%) and practical work (50%).
Students that are taking written exam has to draw a questionnaire with 4 questions, 3 of those covers topics from lectures and 1 – in practical works. Answers on each question makes 25% from final grade.

Compulsory reading

1. Piena lopkopība. Rokasgrāmata. Jemeļjanova A. (red.) Sigulda: Sigra, 2001. 191 lpp.
2. Moderna piena ražošanas ferma: tehnoloģija, tehnika, apsaimniekošana. Priekuļa J. (red.) Jelgava: LLU, 2012. 240 lpp.
3. Džeimsone A. Videi draudzīgu gaļas liellopu audzēšana. [tiešsaiste] Rīga: SIA "Gandrs". 2013. 55 lp. [skatīts 10.02.2019.].
4. Neilands J., Lukstiņa R. Teļu audzēšana. Rīga: Rīgas Paraugtipogrāfija, 1995. 304 lpp.
5. Racionālu piena lopkopības ražošanas modeļu rokasgrāmata. [Tiešsaiste] [skatīts 14.02.2019.].
6. Dairy cattle husbandry (2004) [Online tiešsaiste]. Wageningen: Agromisa Foundation. 84 p. [viewed skatīts 14.02.2019.].
7. House J. (2011) A guide to dairy herd management. [Online tiešsaiste]. Meat and Livestock Australia Limited, North Sydney, 73 p. [viewed skatīts 14.02.2019.] Pieejams:
8. Kemsley P., Jennings N. (2016). Beef cattle health and husbandry for the NSW North coast. [Online tiešsaiste]. North Coast Local Land Services. 221 p. [viewed skatīts 14.02.2019.]. Pieejams:

Further reading

1. Laurs A., Priekulis J. Mūsdienīga piena ražošana. Rīga: LLU Ulbrokas Zinātnes centrs. 2001. 344 lpp.
2. Osītis U. Dzīvnieku ēdināšana kompleksā skatījumā. Jelgava: Ozolnieki. 2004. 363 lpp.
3. Matisāns E., Uzuleņš J. Gaļas šķirnes liellopu nozares attīstība Latvijā. Rīga: LLU Ulbrokas Zinātnes centrs, 2001. 211 lpp.
4. Latvijas Republikas tiesību akti. Likumi. [Tiešsaite]s pakalpojums. [skatīts 20.03.2019.] Pieejams:
5. Ciltsdarba programmas piena un gaļas šķirņu govkopībā [tiešsaiste] [skatīts 10.02.2019.]. Pieejams:
6. Animal welfare and beef cattle production systems. [Online tiešsaiste] [viewed skatīts 14.02.2019.]. Pieejams:
7. Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and International Dairy Federation. (2011) Guide to good farming practice. [Online tiešsaiste]. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Dairy Federation. (Revised. ed.]. ed., FAO animal production and health guidelines ; 8). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 36 p. [viewed skatīts 14.02.2019.]. Pieejams:
8. Hiemstra, S. J., de Haas, Y., Mki-tanila, A., & Gandini, G. (Eds.). (2010). Local cattle breeds in Europe: Development of policies and strategies for self-sustaining breeds. [Online tiešsaiste]. Wageningen Academic Publishers. 154 p. [viewed skatīts 14.02.2019.]. Pieejams:
9. European Comission regulations concerning milk and milk products. [Online tiešsaiste]. [viewed skatīts 14.02.2019.].

Periodicals and other sources

1. Journal of Dairy Science. Published by American Dairy Science Association. ISSN (print): 0022-0302. ISSN (online): 1525-3198. [tiešsaiste] [skatīts 18.03.2019.]. Pieejams :
Pieejams datubāzē arī Science Direct:
2. Proceedings of the Baltic animal breeding conference.
3. Agronomy research. [tiešsaiste]. Estonian University of Life Sciences.2003-. ISSN 140 6-894X [skatīts 10.02.2019.] Pieejams:
4. ScienceDirect database. [[Online tiešsaiste] [viewed skatīts 14.02.2019.].
5. Zinātniski praktiskās konferences "Līdzsvarota lauksaimniecība" raksti. [tiešsaiste]. Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte. Lauksaimniecības fakultāte, Latvijas Agronomu biedrība, Latvijas Lauksaimniecības un meža zinātņu akadēmija. ISSN 2500-9451. [skatīts 14.02.2019.].
6. Saimnieks. Saimnieks LV. Rīga: TEE BIO, 2004- ISSN 1691-1598.
7. Agrotops. AgroTops. Rīga: Aģentūra Agro apgāds. ISSN 1407-5164.
8. Latvijas lopkopis. Ozolnieki: Latvijas Lauku konsultāciju un izglītības centrs, 2014-


Study program Professional Bachelor of Agricultural Sciences, qualification Zootechnican in Breeding