Course code LauZ4004

Credit points 3

Crop Production

Total Hours in Course81

Number of hours for lectures16

Number of hours for laboratory classes16

Independent study hours49

Date of course confirmation01.02.2021

Responsible UnitInstitute of Soil and Plant Science

Course developer

author lect.

Madara Misule

Mg. agr.

Prior knowledge

Biol1001, Botany

Biol3006, Plant Physiology II

Biol3008, Microbiology

Biol3014, Plant Physiology I

LauZ2042, Soil Science

LauZ3053, Field Cultivation

LauZ3170, Entomology

LauZ4006, Genetics and Plant Breeding

LauZ4031, Mechanisation of Agriculture

LauZ4252, Plant Pathology

Course abstract

Students acquire knowledge of certain crop species and varieties morphological and biological characteristics, the regularities of yield and quality formation in different soil and meteorological conditions. Acquires planning of crop production measures and evaluation of the quality of the obtained crop yield.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

• Knowledge on the most economically important crop species in Latvia, their agro-ecological requirements, cultivation techniques and possibilities of use. Knowledge is confirmed by successfully passed test.
• Skills to recognize and distinguish crop species in different phases of plant development, to choose species and varieties suitable for growing conditions, to analyze the influence of various factors on crop yield and quality. Skills are strengthened in laboratory work and independent work.

• Competence to choose the most suitable growing technology on the specific conditions for obtaining the planned yield.

Course Content(Calendar)

Lectures (16 h)
1. Crop production as a basic industry of agricultural production, its description, importance and connection with other production sectors. Level of development of the sector and problems in the world, Latvia and other countries (1 h)
2. Crop yields and their formation regularities. Seed material (1 h)
3. Cereals - growth and development (1 h)
4. Winter cereals - wheat, rye, triticale, barley (1 h)
5. Summer cereals - barley, oats, summer wheat, buckwheat (1 h)
6. Maize – characteristics and cultivation (1 h)
7. Millet, sorghum, rice. - general characteristics (1 h)
8. Legumes – peas, vetch, field beans, lupine, soy (1 h)
9. Tuber crops – potatoes characteristics; Jerusalem artichoke (1 h)
10. Potato growing agrotechnics, seed material, its preparation (1 h)
11. Root crops. Sugar beet and cultivation (1 h)
12. Clover, alfalfa, galega, timothy, meadow fescue, chamomile and other grasses, agricultural machinery (1 h)
13. Natural grasslands, meadows and pastures - their use and improvement (1 h)
14. Green mass plants - corn, vetch mist, lesser known plants (1 h)
15. Oil and essential oil plants - rapeseed, rape, cumin (1 h)
16. Fiber plants - flax, hemp (1 h)

Laboratory works (16 h)
1. Characteristics and morphological differences between different cereal species of field crop’s fruit and seeds, seed identification (1 h)
2. Determination and evaluation of quality parameters of cereal seed quality (purity, moisture, germination capacity, viability, 1000 seed weight, grain size distribution), seed documentation, calculation of sowing rates. (4 h)
3. Seed production - field survey, documentation (1 h)
4. Structure of cereal plant (I, II group), structure of ears and tufts; differences between species (1 h)
5. Determination of cereal grain quality - bulk density, protein content, gluten content, falling number of cereals). (4 h)
6. Morphological characteristics of potatoes. Anatomical structure of tubers. Evaluation of potato yield (fraction content, starch and dry matter determination) (2 h)
7. Morphological differences of root crops (seeds, seedlings, roots) (1 h)
8. Identification of seed legume varieties (peas, beans, lupin, etc.) and characterization and determination of the seeds, fruits, stems, leaves and inflorescences. (1 h)
9. Determination of Brassica napus subsp. oleifera and Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera seed quality indicators - 2 h

10. Morphological and anatomical analysis of fiber plants (flax, hemp); morphology and anathomy of steams, structure of seed, determination of seed quality (1 h)

Requirements for awarding credit points

Test with a mark. The student must have completed and passed all laboratory works, defended independent work with an oral presentation and successfully passed a test with a score in grades.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Independent work includes literature studies, preparing independent work and strengthening knowledge, preparation for the seminar (oral presentation), processing and formating of laboratory work results.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Student may take a test with a mark if the independent work and laboratory works have been accepted. The mark in the study course consists of mark in the test.

Compulsory reading

1. Augkopība (2004). A. Ružas red. Jelgava: LLU. 374 lpp.
2. Augkopība: Rokasgrāmata (2001). A. Ružas red. Jelgava: LLU. 324 lpp.
3. Augkopības praktikums (1980). P. Freimanis, I. Holms, J. Jurševskis, J. Lauva, A. Ruža. Rīga: Zvaigzne. 325 lpp.
4. Balodis O., Bankina B., Gaile Z., Grantiņa I. (2012). Ziemas rapsis. Jelgava, LLU, 68 lpp.
5. Bankina B., Gaile Z. (2014). Ziemāju labības un to slimības. Jelgava, LLU. 104 lpp.
6. Freimanis P., Holms I., Lauva J. (1982). Lopbarības ražošana tīrumos. Rīga: Zvaigzne. 310 lpp.
7. Gaile Z., Bartuševics J. (2012) Kukurūzas audzēšana un izmantošana. Jelgava: LLU. 40 lpp.
8. Gaile Z., Bartuševics J. (2012). Kukurūzas audzēšana un izmantošana. Jelgava: LLU. 40 lpp.
9. Handbuch des Pflanzenbaues 1. Grundlagen der Landwirtschaft lichen Pflanzenproduktion (1997) Keller E.R., Hanus H., Heyland K.U.. Verlag Engen Ulmer, 860 s.
10. Jurševskis L., Holms I., Freimanis P. (1988) Augkopība. Rīga: Zvaigzne. 569 lpp.
11. Kartupeļu audzēšana (1993). Gustavson N. (red), tulk. no zviedru val., Miglavs U. (red.). Umeå: Förlag. 80 lpp.

12. Martin J.D., Leonard W.H., Stamp D.L., Waldren R.P. (2006). Principles of Field Crop Production, 4th Edition. Canada: Pearson. 976

Further reading

1. Copeland L.O., McDonald M.B. (1995) Principles of Seed Science and Technology. 3rd Edition. USA: Chapman & Hall. 409 p.
2. Fageri N.K., Baligar V.C., Jones C.A. (2010). Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. Third Edition. USA: CRC Press
3. Fageria N.K. (2013). The Role of Plant Roots in Crop Production USA. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.
4. Ivanovs S., Stramkale V. (2001). Linu audzēšanas un novākšanas tehnoloģija. Rīga: AS Poligrāfists. 191 lpp.
5. Kunkulberga D., Ruža A. (2009) Kviešu un rudzu graudu uzturvērtība un izmantošana maizes ražošanā. Jelgava: LLU. 55 lpp.
6. The Potato Crop. Second Edition (1992). Harris P. (ed.) London: Chapman & Hall. 909 p.
7. Агрономия (2001). Под редакцией В.Д. Мухи. Москва: Колос, 504 с.
8. Каюмов М.К. (1989). Программирование урожаев сельскохозяйственных культур. Москвa: Агропромиздат. 320 c.

9. Рапс и сурепица (2007). Шпаар Д. (ред.) Москва: ИДООО DLV Агродело. 320 c.

Periodicals and other sources

Žurnāli un zinātnisko rakstu krājumi:
Rural Sustainability Research (LLU Raksti), Agronomijas Vēstis, Agronomy Research, Žemdirbyste=Agriculture, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Sec. B Soil and Plant Science, LF konferenču Rakstu krājumi – atbilstoši tematikai.
Nozares žurnāli – „Agrotops”, „Saimnieks”, „TopAgrar”, “Das Magazin für Modern Landwirtshaft”, „AgriFuture for European Business Farmers” u. tml.