Course code LauZ3046

Credit points 6

Dairy Husbandry

Total Hours in Course162

Number of hours for lectures32

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes32

Independent study hours98

Date of course confirmation06.03.2013

Responsible UnitInstitute of Animal Science

Course developers

author prof.

Daina Kairiša

Dr. agr.

author lect.

Lāsma Cielava

Mg. agr.

Prior knowledge

Vete2023, Animal Anatomy and Physiology

Course abstract

Dairy husbandry as an important sphere of economics. Perspective of development of dairy husbandry in Latvia and other countries. Cow breeds, history of forming, directions of fertilization, prevalence. Factors, affecting milk and meat productivity. Reproduction of herd. Growing of heirs. Evaluation of cattle. Organization of pedigree record.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Students will gain theoretical knowledge about suitability of different cow breeds for milk and / or meat production, breeding and feeding technologies, production and its quality assessment principles. Knowledge is assessed by the results of seminars and tests. Will acquire skills in organization of milk and/or meat production process, assessment of suitability of housing technologies for different breed, age group and different using direction cows. Students will acquire skills necessary for filling herd documentation, registration of quantity of obtained production and in assessment of the traits characterizing productivity. Skills are assessed according to the explanations and conclusions given in the practical work. As a result of the study course students will be competent to assess the suitability of the animals of the particular cow breed to the chosen production direction, to evaluate the compliance of the applied holding technology with the welfare requirements and to independently analyze the productivity and reproduction indicators of the animals. Students will be competent to recommend for the farmers the most appropriate solution for the sustainable development of the farm. The acquired competencies are evaluated during the discussions, the individual work presentations, the tests and the conclusions given at the end of the exam.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Economic importance of cattle husbandry. Most common dairy cattle breeds. 2. Dairy recording system. The registration of milk productivity data, use of databases. 3. Body conformation of dairy cows. 4. The growth and development control, body conformation and recording data analysis of different age cows. 1. test. Body conformation and its role in milk production. 5. Growth and development of mammary glands, milk synthesis and extraction mechanism. 6. Analysis of lactation. 7. Milk composition and quality, factors influencing its changes. 2. test. Milk composition and quality, its influencing factors. 8. Beef production in Latvia. Specialized beef cattle breeds. 9. Body conformation of beef cattle. 10. Traits characterizing beef productivity, carcass and its quality. 3. test. Beef productivity, its influencing factors. 11. Herd structure and circulation, preparation of herd circulation plan. 12. Reproduction problems in beef herd: the obtainment and preservation of calves. Analysis of reproduction traits. 13. Feeding and housing of calves in different growth stages. The basic principles of calf grouping. 4. test. Problems in calf rearing, possible solutions.

Requirements for awarding credit points

Successfully written tests, completed and graded practical works, public presentation of independent work in the classroom and successfully passed written exam

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

The student independently studies literature, collects the obtained information, publicly presents the results of practical work and independent work.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Independent work is evaluated with a mark after the presentation of the prepared material and tests, according to the given answers. Positive grade receives only those works that are rated at least 4 points.
Practical works are evaluated after their development with a mark pass or fail. . At the end of the practical works, students are writing test, which is graded on a 10-point scale. Successful evaluation in practical works can only be achieved if all the practical works developed have received a positive assessment.
Students who have a positive assessment in tests and practical works and also successfully presented the topics of independent work are admitted to the examination.
Students who receive grade higher than 7 in all forms of examination during the study course, do not have to take the exam, their grade is calculated from grades in theoretical course (50%) and practical work (50%).

Compulsory reading

1. Piena lopkopība. Rokasgrāmata. Jemeļjanova A. (red.) Sigulda: Sigra, 2001. 191 lpp.
2. Moderna piena ražošanas ferma: tehnoloģija, tehnika, apsaimniekošana. Priekuļa J. (red.) Jelgava: LLU, 2012. 240 lpp.
3. Džeimsone A. Videi draudzīgu gaļas liellopu audzēšana. Rīga: SIA "Gandrs", 2013. 55 lp. [Tiešsaiste] [skatīts 10.02.2019.].
4. Neilands J., Lukstiņa R. Teļu audzēšana. Rīga: Rīgas Paraugtipogrāfija, 1995. 304 lpp.
5. Racionālu piena lopkopības ražošanas modeļu rokasgrāmata. [Tiešsaiste] [skatīts 14.02.2019.].
6. Dairy cattle husbandry. [Online] [viewed 14.02.2019.].
7. A guide to dairy herd management. [Online] [viewed 14.02.2019.].
8. Beef cattle health and husbandry for the NSW North coast. [Online] [viewed 14.02.2019.].

Further reading

1. Laurs A., Priekulis J. Mūsdienīga piena ražošana. Rīga: LLU Ulbrokas Zinātnes centrs. 2001. 344 lpp.
2. Osītis U. Dzīvnieku ēdināšana kompleksā skatījumā. Jelgava: Ozolnieki. 2004. 363 lpp.
3. Matisāns E., Uzuleņš J. Gaļas šķirnes liellopu nozares attīstība Latvijā. Rīga: LLU Ulbrokas Zinātnes centrs, 2001. 211 lpp.
4. Likumi. Tiešsaites pakalpojums. Pieejams:
5. Ciltsdarba programmas piena un gaļas šķirņu govkopībā [tiešsaiste] [skatīts 10.02.2019.]. Pieejams:
6. Animal welfare and beef cattle production systems. [Online] [viewed 14.02.2019.].
7. Guide to good farming practice. [Online] [viewed 14.02.2019.].
8. Local cattle breeds in Europe: Development of policies and strategies for self-sustaining breeds. [Online] [viewed 14.02.2019.].
9. European Comission regulations concerning milk and milk products. [Online] [viewed 14.02.2019.].

Periodicals and other sources

1. Journal of Dairy Science [tiešsaiste] [skatīts 10.02.2019.]. 2. Proceedings of the Baltic animal breeding conference. 3. Agronomy research, žurnāls, [tiešsaiste] [skatīts 10.02.2019.]. Pieejams 4. ScienceDirect database. [Online] [viewed 14.02.2019.]. 5. Zinātniski praktiskās konferences "Līdzsvarota lauksaimniecība" raksti. [tiešsaiste] [skatīts 14.02.2019.]. 6. Saimnieks. Saimnieks LV. Rīga: TEE BIO, 2004- ISSN 1691-1598. 7. Agrotops. AgroTops. Rīga: Aģentūra Agro apgāds. ISSN 1407-5164. 8. Latvijas lopkopis. Ozolnieki. LLKC. Apgāds.


Professional bachelor study program "Agriculture"with the qualification Zootechnitian in Breeding.