Course code VidZ3047

Credit points 3

Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development

Total Hours in Course81

Number of hours for lectures24

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes8

Independent study hours49

Date of course confirmation16.02.2022

Responsible UnitInstutute of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Engineering

Course developer

author Ainavu arhitektūras un vides inženierijas institūts

Ritvars Sudārs

Dr. sc. ing.

Course abstract

The aim of the study course is to get acquainted with the division of ecology as a discipline of biological sciences, populations, biocenoses and ecosystems, acquires knowledge and competencies about substance circulation, biosphere and ecosystem structure and energy processes in ecosystems, trophic chains in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Students acquire skills on current environmental and nature protection issues, learn to understand global environmental protection problems, the causes of environmental pollution and methods of its control, the impact of agriculture on the environment, as well as the basic principles of sustainable development, get acquainted with environmental legislation and environmental policy.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

After the course students will have:
1. Knowledge and understanding of the basic concept of ecology and environmental protection, current environmental protection problems, theoretical and practical issues in environmental protection and ecology - 1. test, written test (or exam) at the end of studies;
2. Skills to formulate, critically evaluate and coordinate aspects of environmental protection and ecology with the content of research, course and final theses of study courses of their specialty - report, written test (or exam) at the end of studies;
3. Competences to observe and practically apply the basic principles of environmental protection and sustainable development in study courses and researches of their specialty - 2nd - 6th test, written test (or exam) at the end of studies.

Course Content(Calendar)

Full time intramural studies:
1. Environment as a subject of studies. History of environmental protection. Environmental characteristics and its description, 2h.
2. 1st practical work: Specially protected nature territories, 2h.
3. Ecology – a theoretical basis of environmental protection. Content and structure of ecology. Habitats of living organisms. Ecological factors, 2h.
4. Population. Characteristics, structure, and dynamics of population. Homeostasis of population, 2h.
5. Biocenosis. Properties of biocenosis. Ecological niche, 1h. 2nd practical work: Nature and biosphere reserves, 1h.
6. Ecosystem. Flow of substances and energy in an ecosystem. Productivity and dynamics of ecosystems. Biosphere, 2h.
7. Formation and development of human population. Urbanization, food security, diseases, 2h.
8. Environment and agriculture. Impacts of agriculture on the environment, 1h. 3rd practical work: National parks, 1h.
9. Natural resources and principles of sustainable use of natural resources. Energy resources. Minerals, 2h.
10. Water resources. Plant and animal resources. Land resources, 1h. 4th practical work: Nature parks, natural monuments, 1h.
11. Environmental pollution. Classification and characteristics of pollution. Environmental quality and human health, 2h.
12. 5th practical work: Protection zones I, 2h.
13. Water pollution. Wastewater treatment. Protection of water resources, 2h.
14. Air (atmospheric) pollution. Types of air pollution and outspread. Reduction of air pollution, 2h.
15. Waste and pollution caused by waste. Problems of waste utilization. Waste management, 1h. 6th practical work: Protection zones II, 1h.
16. Environment and society. Essence of sustainable development. Sustainable production. Code of good agricultural practice, 2h.
Part time extramural studies:
All topics specified for full time studies are accomplished, but the number of contact hours is one half of the number specified in the calendar

Requirements for awarding credit points

1. During the study semester six tests are successfully passed on the topics of practical works.
2. At the end of the study semester a written examination about a theoretical part of the study course has been successfully passed.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

The student should independently prepare for six tests on the topics explored within the practical works. The students should complete six tests by providing answers to ten questions in each test. The tests are recognized as passed if at least six questions are answered correctly. Each correct answer is evaluated with one point. The total score obtained during all tests is multiplied by a factor of 0.7 and included in a cumulative evaluation for this study course.
At the end of the study semester the students have to complete a written examination about a theoretical part of the study course by providing answers to 50 questions. The written examination is recognized as passed if at least 25 questions are answered correctly. Each correct answer is evaluated with one point and the total score is included in a cumulative evaluation for this study course. If the students did not provide correct answers to at least 25 questions and thus did not passed the written examination, the examination should be completed repeatedly. The points obtained in all written examinations are summed and divided by the number of writing times.
In addition to practical works and theoretical studies, students can conduct an in-depth study related to a topic of environmental protection by writing a report. This report should consist of at least 12 pages and should be prepared according to generally accepted technical and content requirements. This report can be evaluated up to ten points and included in a cumulative evaluation for this study course.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The final grade upon completion of this study course will depend on the number of points obtained during the semester.

Grading in the 10-point scale:
< 40 points - 3 (unsatisfactory)
40 ... 45 points - 4 (almost satisfactory);
46 ... 55 points - 5 (satisfactory);
56 ... 65 points - 6 (almost good);
66 ... 75 points - 7 (good);
76 ... 85 points - 8 (very good);
86 ... 90 points - 9 (excellent);
> 90 points - 10 (with distintion).

Compulsory reading

1. Ekoloģija un vides aizsardzība: mācību līdzeklis. J. Švarcbahs ... [u.c.]; Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte. Vides un ūdenssaimniecības katedra. Jelgava: LLU, 2006. 225 lpp.
2. Dabas aizsardzība. O. Nikodemus un G. Brūmeļa redakcijā.; Rīga: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2011. 287 lpp.
3. Vides zinātne. M.Kļaviņš ... [u.c.]; M. Kļaviņa redakcijā. Rīga: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2008. 599 lpp.
4. Vide un ilgtspējīga attīstība. Redaktori M. Kļaviņš un J.Zaļoksnis. Rīga: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2010. 334 lpp. ISBN 978-9984-45-220-3
5. Fundamentals of Environmental Studies. Mahua Basu, S. Xavier. Cambridge University Press, 2016. 450 p. ISBN 978-1-107-53617-3.
6. Environmental science. L.Ryden, P.Migula & M.Anderson. The Baltic University Press. Uppsala, Sweden, 2003. 824 p. Pieejams:
7. Environment and sustainable development. Edited by Māris Kļaviņš, Walter Leal Filho, Jānis Zaļoksnis. ; Riga: Academic Press of University of Latvia, 2010. 300 p. ISBN 978-9984-45-234-0
8. Ecology and Animal Health. Editors L. Norrgren and J. M.Levengood. , Uppsala Universitet. Uppsala: Uppsala University, 2012. 382 p. ISBN 978-91-86189-12-9.
9. Sustainable Agriculture. Editor: C.Jakobsson. Pages: 505 p. ISBN 978-91-86189-10-5.

Further reading

1. Living in the Environment. G.Tyler Miller. 12th edition. USA: Thomson learning. USA, 2002. 758 p.
2. Environment. P.H.Raven, L.R.Berg. USA: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001. 612 p.
3. Sustainable Water Management course that includes 3 textbooks in english and russian.
4. Sustainable Water Management in the Baltic Sea. Book 1: The Waterscape. Editor Lars-Christer Lundin. A Baltic University Programme. Uppsala University. 2000. 207 p. [Skatīts 22.02.2022.]. Pieejams:

5. Sustainable Water Management in the Baltic Sea. Book 2: Water Use and Management. Editor Lars-Christer Lundin. A Baltic University Programme. Uppsala University. Uppsala: Baltic University Press, 2000. 224 p. [Skatīts 22.02.2022.]. Pieejams:
6. Sustainable Water Management in the Baltic Sea. Book 3: River Basin Management. Editor Lars-Christer Lundin. A Baltic University Programme. Uppsala University. 2000. 239 p. [Skatīts 22.02.2022.]. Pieejams:
7. Ilgtspējīga attīstība un sociālās inovācijas. 2018. Redaktore Baiba Bela. Rīga : LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 237 lpp. ISBN 9789934183065. Pieejams:


This study course is compulsory for all the levels of undergraduate study programs at Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies.