Course code Vete6038

Credit points 1

Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology II

Total Hours in Course40

Number of hours for lectures8

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes12

Independent study hours20

Date of course confirmation22.11.2017

Responsible UnitClinical Institute

Course developer

author Klīniskais institūts

Laima Liepa

Dr. med. vet.

Prior knowledge

Biol1003, Botany and Pharmacognosy

Ķīmi1028, Inorganic Chemistry

Ķīmi3004, Biochemistry

Vete1001, Latin Language I

Vete1002, Latin Language II

Vete2013, Anatomy of the Domestic Animals I

Vete2014, Anatomy of the Domestic Animals II

Vete2015, Anatomy of the Domestic Animals III

Vete4019, Clinical and Laboratory Diagnostics III

Vete4036, General Pathology I

Vete4037, General Pathology II

Vete4078, Internal Medicine, Herd Health I

Vete4098, Small Animal Internal Medicine I

Vete4099, Small Animal Internal Medicine II

Vete4104, Forage Production and Animal Nutrition III

Vete4105, Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology I

Vete4109, Internal Medicine, Herd Health II

Vete4110, Clinical and Laboratory Diagnostics I

Vete4111, Clinical and Laboratory Diagnostics II

Vete6022, Physiology I

Vete6023, Physiology II

Course abstract

The aim of the study course Toxicology is to acquire in depth the science based on knowledge about the basic and special toxicology question of toxicities, pathogenesis, clinical findings, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and prophylaxis of toxicities, emergency treatment procedures of toxicities of productive, small animals and horses.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knowledge: of distribution, influence and elimination of poisonous substances; causes, pathogenesis, clinical findings, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of toxicities - Test.
Skills: to obtain anamnesis of intoxication, to make clinical examination of animals, to prepare proper samples for laboratory examination, to make a differential diagnosis of poisoning, to perform the special and general treatment procedures of poisoned animals- Practical work.
Competence: to explain the course of intoxication, to establish diagnosis of intoxication, perform the special and general treatment of poisoned animals, to prepare the plan of control of intoxication in productive animal units and limitations of the use of treated animal products for human consumption. – Test.

Course Content(Calendar)

The course is divided into two parts: 8 weeks – Basic Toxicology questions and Toxicology of productive animals and horses; and 8 weeks – Toxicology of small animals.
Themes dealt with in the course:
1. Basic and Veterinary Toxicology questions. Terminology. Absorption, distribution, excretion of toxic substances, target organs. Conventional laboratory diagnostic methods of toxicities. Toxic dose. Lethal dose. Lectures - 2 hours.
Intoxication diagnosis principles. Preparation of laboratory samples. Action and emergency veterinary assistance in case of poisoning of individual animal and herds. Practical work – 4 hours.
2. Exposure of environmental contaminants to animals: air, food, water pollution. Lectures – 3 hours.
Toxic compounds from industrial and agricultural production: pesticides (herbicides, insecticides, rodenticides, repellents); organic compounds and combustion, decomposition products (organic solvents, biphenols, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur oxides, CO, methane gas, blue-green toxins, etc.); heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Cr, Cu); their effects on live organisms, diagnostics, emergency treatment, antidotes. Practical work– 4 h.
3. Poisoning with food and drinking water - with nutrients or additives, products that are unsuitable or damaged. Lectures -3 hours.
Poisoning with wild and ornamental plants (hawthorn, fern, lily of the valley, plants of lily genus, etc.); damaged, dirty food (frozen, secondary fermented, contaminated soil, with mycotoxins - Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp., Claviceps purpurea, etc. with toxins, with nitrites), with human foods (chocolate, spices, etc.); with nutrients, additives (potatoes, rape and cotton seed cakes, linseed, NaCl, urea, ammonia, medicines, etc.); with household chemical products (acids, bases, ethylene glycol, dish disinfectants, etc.). Practical work - 4 hours.
Two colloquiums (in the form of a test).
1st Test, on week 8 - on general toxicology issues and toxicology of productive animals and horses.
2nd Test, on week 16 - on small animal toxicology.

Requirements for awarding credit points

Two tests with a mark of no less than 4 points as a basis for a pass (with a mark). This mark (in points) is determined by the average mark of two tests. If attendance of laboratory work is missed more than 30 %, the study course should be repeated.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

The aim is to learn how to analyze the toxicosis of an individual animal or herd, to develop a treatment and prevention plan of toxicosis. Independently determine the botanical name of toxic plants, in English and in Latin; find out description of the toxicosis in Veterinary toxicology books and on the Internet.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Tests of the study course are evaluated in accordance with the criteria of the 10 point system scale indicated in the LLU Study Regulations.
In order to get the final grade of the study course "pass", both tests must be evaluated with a successful mark.

Compulsory reading

1. Roder J. D. Veterinary Toxicology.USA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001. 403 p.
2. Lu F.C. Lu's Basic toxicology: fundamentals, target organs, and risk assessment. 3rd Edition., London; New York: Taylor &Francis, 2001. 358 p.
3. Lorgue G., Lechenet J., Chapmant A. Clinical Veterinary Toxicology. USA: Backwell Science, 1996. 210 p.
4. Silverstein D.C., Hopper K. Small Animal Critical Care Medicine. 2nd Edition. Canada: Elsevier, 2015. 1130 p.
5. Tilley L.P., Smith F.W.K. The 5-minute veterinary consult. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Willams & Wilkins, 2000. 1428 p.

6. Gfeller G.W., Messonnjer S.P. Handbook of Small Animal Toxicology and Poisonings. 2003.

Further reading

1. The Merck Veterinary Manual. Editor-in-chief: S.E. Aiello. 11th edition. Kenilworth: Merck Sharp & Dohme, 2016. 3325 p.

2. Radositis O.M., Gay C.C., Hinchcliff K.W., Constable P.C. Veterinary Medicine. 10th edition. Bailliere Tindall, 2008. 1435 p.

Periodicals and other sources

1. The Veterinary Journal. ISSN 1090-0233

2. Journal of Toxicology. Hindawi. Pieejams:


The compulsory course name of the study programme Veterinary medicine
is: Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology II (course code: Vete 6038)