Course code Vete4035

Credit points 3.75

Cytology, Histology and Embryology I

Additional course materials,histol.,embriol. izvērsts saturs.pdf

Total Hours in Course100

Number of hours for lectures16

Number of hours for laboratory classes34

Independent study hours50

Date of course confirmation16.11.2011

Responsible UnitPreclinical Institute

Course developer

author lect.

Alma Plivča

Mg. biol.

Prior knowledge

Vete2013, Anatomy of the Domestic Animals I

Course abstract

The aim of the course is to provide an understanding of the microscopic structure and functions of cells, tissues and organs of animal organisms. In the first part of the course students learn the basics of histology: history of histology development, basics of preparation of histological material, structure and functions of the cell, tissues and their characteristics. The course also examines the basics of embryology.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knowledge - the student has mastered theoretical knowledge about the structure of the cell and its functions, for all types of tissues (epithelium, connective tissue, muscle and nervous system) and their significance, as well as the fundamentals of the body's embryonic development. There are 8 tests.
Skills - Student is able to recognize, describe and explain the structure and specifics of cells and tissues (epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle and nervous tissue) seen in histological preparations using a light microscope.
Competence - the student is able to independently analyse, compare and evaluate histological preparations of cells and tissues. Understands the regularities of the construction of different cells and tissues and their functional significance.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Introduction. History of histology. Histological research methods. Work with a microscope – 1 h lecture, 2 h laboratory works.
2. Structure and functions of the cell – 2 h lectures, 2 h laboratory works.
3. Cell cycle, division (mitosis) and death of the cell - 1 h lecture, 2 h laboratory work.
1st test - The structure of the cell, cell cycle, division, cell death.
4. Biological processes taking place in the cell. Cell communication - 1 h lecture, 2 h laboratory work.
5. Tissues, their classification. Epithelial tissues – 1 h lecture, 2 h laboratory works.
2nd test - Epithelium.
6. Connective tissue – 1 h lecture, 2 h laboratory works.
3rd test - Connective tissue.
7. Supportive tissue (cartilage, bone tissue). Supportive tissue development – 2 h lectures, 4 h laboratory works.
4 th test - Supportive tissue.
8. Blood. Hematopoiesis - 2 h lectures, 6 h laboratory works.
5 th test - Blood, hematopoiesis.
9. Muscle tissue - 1 lecture, 2 h laboratory works.
6 th test – Muscle tissue.
10. Nervous tissue - 1 h lecture, 2 h laboratory works.
7 th test - Nervous tissue.
11. Embryology – 3 h lectures, 8 h laboratory works.
8 th test - Embryology

Requirements for awarding credit points

Eight tests must have been passed successfully. All laboratory works must be passed.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Independent work is accomplished by obliging students to prepare certain questions for each colloquium. Independent work performance is controlled during the response to the colloquia; its questions are included in the exam.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Tests of the study course are evaluated in accordance with the criteria of the 10 point system scale indicated in the LLU Study Regulations. To qualify for the final grade of the course, all tests must be successfully completed.

Compulsory reading

1. Brūveris Z. Veterinārās histoloģijas pamati. Rīga: Medicīnas apgāds, 2015. 528 lpp.
2. Bacha W.J., Bacha l. M. Color Atlas of Veterinary Histology. Philadelphia ... [etc.]: Lippincot Williams & Wilkins, 2000. 318 p.

Further reading

1. Selga T. Šūnu bioloģija. Rīga: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2008. 344 lpp.
2. Dālmane A. Histoloģija. LU Akadēmiskais apgāds. Rīga, 2004. 319 lpp.
3. Dālmane A. Histoloģijas atlants. LU Akadēmiskais apgāds. Rīga, 2005. 304 lpp.
4. Eurell J.A, Ffrappier B. L. (ed.). Dellmann's textbook of veterinary histology, 6th ed.. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

Periodicals and other sources

Interneta resurss:


Obligatory course in the 2nd level professional higher education study program Veterinary Medicine.