Course code MežZ5048

Credit points 3

Principles of Forests Science

Total Hours in Course81

Number of hours for lectures12

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes12

Independent study hours57

Date of course confirmation16.03.2021

Responsible UnitInstitute of Forest Management

Course developer

author prof.

Olga Miezīte

Dr. silv.

Course abstract

The course introduces the principles of forest ecology, forestry, botany, forest economics, forest inventory and management planning, logging and timber processing.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knows forest botany and dendrology, types, importance and protection of forest ecosystems, as well as structural elements and characteristics and forestry terminology. Students are able to determine the structural elements of different forest ecosystems, to characterize and calculate dendrometric values of forest stands by interpreting them.
Test 1 - 1-3. successful completion of practical work (8 h), test with mark.
Is able to understand forest typology (using acquired knowledge in forest botany and dendrology), is familiar with the main features of determination of forest growth conditions types, forest and forest stand types in nature, as well as their importance in forest ecosystem management. Students are familiar with the ways of using the forest and the aims and tasks of their use.
Test 2 - presentation and participation in seminars with presentation “Forest typology and forest use” (group work), assessed separately - presentation, presentation and activity in seminars on a ten-point scale.
Competent in forest management processes related to reforestation, care and utilization of forest in different types of forest and forest stands and able to justify using legislation.
Test 3 - 4-8. successful completion of practical work (6 h), test with mark.
After completing the course students will also understand the basic concepts of forest economics, the importance of forest inventory, understand the aims and tasks of logging, know the types of wood and their possible processing methods. Competent to engage in discussions on forest ecosystem categorization, forest typology, reforestation and forest management, and to make decisions on forest ecosystem restoration and maintenance, taking into account the type of forest and forest stand and tree species or species present, based on existing legislation.

Course Content(Calendar)

Lectures 16 h
1. Forest botany (2 h).
2. Latvian species of wild woody plants (2 h).
3. Forest ecosystem, types, structure and functions. Koakcijas (1 h).
4. Forest typology (2 h).
5. Forestry activities (2 h).
6. Forest Economics (1 h).
7. Forest management planning (1 h).
8. Forest inventory (1 h).
9. Logging (2 h).
10. Timber and its processing (2 h).

Practical works (12 h)
1. Forest botany (2 h).
2. Tree species of Latvia (3 h)
3. Elements of forest structure and dendrometric indices. Tree classification, its application (2 h)
4. Succession and species change. Assessment of natural regeneration of forest stands (1 h).
5. Tree stand composition and age (1 h).
6. Care of regenerated forest stands (1 h).
7. Choice of management mode (1 h).
8. Determination of felling intensity (1 h).

Seminars (2 h)
Forest typology and use (2 h).

Requirements for awarding credit points

Written exam.
Exam tasks consist of:
- 3 theoretical questions about the theoretical subject acquired in the course (dendrology, forest typology, forest management);
- 2 practical tasks on the topics acquired during the course.
All practical and independent work must be successfully completed.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Individual work in groups (3-4).
Each group should write a report. Common theme of the paper Forest typology and forest use. Report on pages 12-15. The report should be prepared using the LLU MF “Regulations for the completion of studies” report of the paper for 12 min., discussion 5-7 min.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The number of missed classes may not exceed 10% of the total number of lessons. Master students can get a successful assessment of the report and its presentation and the exam if at least 50% of the questions are answered correctly.
The course grade consists of an exam mark, which is calculated as the arithmetic mean of 2 exam questions and 2 tasks and the average grade of independent work, which is calculated as the average arithmetic.
The exam grade is calculated as the arithmetic mean of the 4 exam tasks and the average grade of the semester, which is calculated as the arithmetic mean of the grades of the independent work (report and presentation).

Compulsory reading

1. Dreimanis A. Mežsaimniecības pamati: mācību līdzeklis LLU Meža fakultātes studentiem un nozares speciālistiem. A/S LVM. Jelgava: LLU Meža fakultāte, Studentu biedrība "Šalkone". 2016. 219 lpp. E-grāmata. (PDF). Resurss pieejams tiešsaistē
2. Straupe, I., Indriksons, A., Kazāka, R. Koki, krūmi un zemsedzes augi Latvijas mežaudzēs. Jelgava: A/S "Latvijas valsts meži", Studentu bierība "Šalkone", 2014. 179 lpp.
3. Meža tipoloģija: mācību līdzeklis LLU Meža fakultātes studentiem un nozares speciālistiem. I. Liepa, O. Miezīte, S. Luguza, V. Šulcs, I. Straupe, A. Indriksons, A.Dreimanis, A.Saveļjevs, A.Drēska, Z.Sarmulis, D.Dubrovskis. Jelgava: Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte, Meža fakultāte. Studentu biedrība „Šalkone”, 2014. 118 lpp. Meža izglītības bibliotēka. E-grāmata. (PDF). Resurss pieejams tiešsaistē
4. Zālītis P., Jansons J. Latvijas meža tipoloģija un tās sākotne. DU Akadēmiskais apgāds "Saule", 2013. 167 lpp.
5. Līpiņš L., Liepa I. Apaļo kokmateriālu uzmērīšana. Jelgava, 2007. 104 lpp.
6. Saliņš Z. Mežs – Latvijas nacionālā bagātība. Jelgava: aut. izd., 2002. 248 lpp.
7. Zālītis P. Mežkopības priekšnosacījumi. Rīga: SIA "Et cetera", 2006. 217 lpp.
8. Burton L. Introduction to forestry science. 3rd edition. Cengage Learning, New York. 2012. 554 p. ISBN-13: 978-1111308391
Forest Ecosystems: management, impact assessment and conservation. D. Elliott, editor. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2017. 172 p. Wildlife protection, destruction, and extinction. ISBN 9781634857949 (iesiets). Pieejams datubāzē EBSCO. {Resurss pieejams LLU datortīklā}
9. Heywood V.H, Brummitt R.K., Culham A., Seberg O. Flowering Plant Families of the World. Published by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2007. 424 p. ISBN – 13: 978184246165 5, ISBN – 10: 1842461656.
10. Mossberg B., Stenberg L. Den nya nordiska Floran, Stockholm, Wahlstrom & Widstrand. 2003.928 p. ISBN: 914-61-7584-9
11.Harlow & Harrar's Textbook of Dendrology: McGraw-Hill Higer Education, 2001. 534 p. ISBN-13: 978-0073661711
12. Idžojtić M. Dendrology: Cones, Flowers, Fruits and Seeds, Academic Press, 1st edition. 2019. p. 800 ISBN: 9780128196441

Further reading

1. Meža enciklopēdija. 2 sēj. Rīga: Zelta Grauds, 2003. 367 lpp.
2. J. C. Mackin J. C., Ian McLean I. MCSA/MCSE Self-Paced Training Kit (Exam 70-291): Implementing, Managing, and Maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network Infrastructure. Second Edition. Publisher: Microsoft Press 2006. 1230 p.
3. А.Б. Семенов А.Б., С.К. Стрижаков С.К., И.Р. Сунчелей И.Р. Структурированные кабельные системы. 5-е изд. Москва: АйТи; ДМК Пресс, 2004. 639 с.
4. Speer J.H. Fundamentals of tree-ring research. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 2010. 333 p.

Periodicals and other sources

Mežzinātne ISSN 1407-270X.
Baltic Forestry ISSN 1392-1355 index.php? option=com_content&view= featured&Itemid=101


Academic Master's study program “Forest Science”, I semester, I