Course code MežZ3070

Credit points 3

Forest Nurseries

Total Hours in Course81

Number of hours for lectures24

Number of hours for laboratory classes8

Independent study hours49

Date of course confirmation16.03.2021

Responsible UnitInstitute of Forest Management

Course developers

author lect.

Solveiga Luguza

Mg. silv.


Guntis Grandāns


Prior knowledge

Biol1012, Forest Botany

Biol2002, Dendrology

Biol3017, Plant Physiology

LauZ2057, Forest Soil Science

LauZ3084, Forest Protection

MežZ3003, Forest Tree Improvement

Course abstract

Study course is divided into two blocks – 1) forest see crop and 2) growing of forest planting material. Students are embracing the peculiarities of seed production of the introduced, forest tree species in Latvia, the possibilities of predicting of seed yields, the types of seed collecting, the characteristics of the conditions necessary for their storage. In the second part of the study course, students receive information about what are the tasks, types, their site selection, soil treatment and plant consequences of forest cohorts. The range of issues to be considered includes the agromachinery and technology of bare-root seedlings, bare-root plants, seedlings and plants with closed root system and bare-root plants with improved root system grown in Latvian nurseries, as well as bare-root seedlings with improved root systems, as well as questions regarding the quality assessment, storage, processing and marketing of planting material.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

The final assessment of the study course depends on the cumulative assessment of exam response assessment and tests during the semester.
Only students who have successfully worked out and presented their laboratory work (rating – passed) and successfully passed (at least degree 4) both tests are allowed in the exam.
A student may obtain a successful check in a test or exam if at least 50% of the questions are answered correctly.
Laboratory work has been evaluated with “passed” if all the practical tasks that have been assigned have been successfully carried out, the work has been designed and successfully presented.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. The concept of forest seed production, its development, scientific bases of the organization and practical conditions. (2 hours)
2. Stimulation of seed production. Periodicity of seed production and its causes. (2 hours)
3. Seed yield evaluation and forecasting. Fruit and seed collection. (2 hours)
4. Preparation of fruits and cones for seed gathering. Extraction of seeds from cones. (2 hours)
5. Obtaining seeds from dry and juicy fruits. Seed storage. (2 hours)
6. Seed quality and its determination. (1 hour)
Test I. Forest seed production. (1 hour)
7. Tasks, history and types of forest nurseries. (1 hour)
8. Site selection, tillage and crop rotation in the forest nursery. Fertilization of forest nurseries. (2 hours)
9. Growing bare-rooted seedlings. Growing of bare-rooted plants. (2 hours)
10. Agrotechnics and technology of production of planting material with closed root system. (2 hours)
11. Growing of bare-rooted plants with improved root system. (2 hours)
12. Preparation of planting material before sale - inventory, excavation, processing, storage and sale. (2 hours)
Test II. Growing of forest planting material. (1 hour)
1. LR MK No. 159 of 26.03.2013. Analysis of "Regulations on forest reproductive material".
(2 hours)
2. Sampling of the average seed lot, determination of germination and seed purity. (2 hours)
3. Calculation of seed and peat substrate resources and resource costs. (2 hours)
4. Calculation of the costs of planting material growing agrotechnics. (2 hours)

Requirements for awarding credit points

During the semester, 4 laboratory works must be worked out and defended (assessment passed/not passed)
During the semester, 2 tests must be successfully written (50% of the final assessment of the study course).
Written exam (50% of the final grade), allowed to participate, if all laboratory works have been passed and both tests have been successfully written. Exam questions about both the theoretical material acquired in the study course and the tasks performed in the laboratory work.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Literature studies for mastering the issues covered in the course.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

TThe final assessment of the study course depends on the assessment of the exam answers and the cumulative assessment of the study course tests.
Only those students who have successfully worked out and presented laboratory works (assessment - passed), as well as successfully passed (at least grade 4) both tests are allowed to participate in the examination.
A student can obtain a successful mark in a test or exam if at least 50% of the questions are answered correctly.
Laboratory work is evaluated as “passed” if all assigned practical tasks have been successfully completed, the work has been designed and successfully presented.

Compulsory reading

1. Mangalis I. Meža kultūras. Rīga: Zvaigzne, 1989. 347 lpp.;
2. Kaitēkļi un slimības kokaudzētavās. Rokasgrāmata. Rīga: A/S LVM, 2006. 128 lpp.;
3. Farmer, R.E. (1997). Seed Ecophysiology of Temperate and Boreal Zone Forest Trees (1st ed.). CRC Press.;
4. The Container Tree Nursery Manual (CTNM), lejuplādejams:;
5. Jaenicke H. Good Tree Nursery Practices Practical Guidelines for Research Nurseries (1999), lejuplādējams:

Further reading

1. A/S LVM pasūtīto zinātnisko pētījumu atskaites (no 2004. gada), lejuplādējamas:;
2. The Container Tree Nursery Manual (CTNM), lejuplādejams:;

Periodicals and other sources

1. Mežzinātne ISSN 1407-270X;
2. Baltic Forestry ISSN 1392-1355;
3. Seed Testing international ISTA News Bulletin, lejuplādējams:


The study course is included in the limited choice (B) part of the academic study programme “Forest Science”.