Course code MežZ2011

Credit points 3

Forest Science

Total Hours in Course120

Number of hours for lectures32

Number of hours for laboratory classes16

Independent study hours72

Date of course confirmation16.03.2021

Responsible UnitDepartment of Silviculture

Course developers

author Mežkopības katedra

Imants Liepa

Dr. habil. biol.

author lect.

Edgars Dubrovskis

Mg. silv.

author reserch

Līga Liepa

Dr. silv.

Course abstract

Course of study is to provide the theoretical basis of knowledge of forest ecosystem structure, functions, dynamics, diversity, classification, the assessment and forecasting of the natural and anthropogenic factors influence. Study course is to introduce students to the impact of changing environmental and sustainable forest management options.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

1. acquire knowledge of the forest ecosystem structure, functions, dynamics, diversity, classification, impacts of natural and anthropogenic factors, its assessment and forecasting capabilities — 1st test, practical work.

2. Students acquire the skills to see the current environmental and forest relations challenges associated with forest cultivation and the sustainable exploitation of forest resources. After learning a study course, students have the competence to take decisions independently in the field of forest ecology — 2nd test, practical work.

Course Content(Calendar)

List of lectures:

1. Forest ecosystem structure and basic functions. Ecosystem types. (2 hours)
2. Forest ecosystem: structure, functions, dynamics, diversity. (2 hours)
3. Trophic structure. Consortium. Ecological niche. Ecological capacity. (2 hours)
4. Energy and substance circulation. Coalitions and their diversity. (2 hours)
5. Ecosystem overcrowding. Management strategy. Disappearance of populations and species. (2 hours)
6. Common patterns of impact structure and dynamics. (2 hours)
7. Test Nr.1. Forest ecosystem. Environmental impact infrastructure. (1 hour)
8. Influence of abiotic factors and possibilities of silvicultural change. (2 hours)
9. Effects of biotic factors and possibilities of silvicultural change. (2 hours)
10. Succession. The concept of climax. Species change. (2 hours)
11. Forest typology. Development directions. Latvian forest typology. (2 hours)
12. Syntaxonomic units, content and identification. (2 hours)
13. Common properties of the typology scheme. (2 hours)
14. Typological specificity of forest management. (2 hours)
15. Peatland ecosystems: content, classification, ecological and economic importance. (2 hours)
16. Test Nr.2. Abiotic and biotic factor influence, succession, climax, forest typology. (1 hour)


List of Practical Works:

1. Tree classification in forest stand (1 hour)
2. Dynamics of tree number and wood stock in forest stand (1 hour)
3. Forest stand construction elements (1 hour)
4. Forest stand characteristics (1 hour)
5. Forest and atmosphere (1 hour)
6. Composition and stand age (1 hour)
7. Tree light requirements and their detection methods (1 hour)
8. Heat and forest interaction (1 hour)
9. Forest and precipitation (1 hour)
10. Stand resistance to wind throw and windbreaks (1 hour)
11. Assessment of natural regeneration of forest (1 hour)
12. Dry mineral soil forest growing conditions(1 hour)
13. Wet mineral soil forest growing conditions (1 hour)
14. Wet peat soil forest growing conditions (1 hour)
15. Drained mineral soil forest growing conditions (1 hour)
16. Drained peat soil forest growing conditions (1 hour)

Requirements for awarding credit points

Students develop and successfully defend practical jobs.
The student must successfully write both tests.
Type of final assessment: exam.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Students independently complement their knowledge of the topics in lectures and laboratory work by preparing structured and well-founded questions of interest that we discuss in the lessons before starting a new topic/laboratory work.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The final score of the course consists of 2 test jobs (50%) and an exam (50%) rating that must be successful.
A student may obtain a successful assessment of the test or exam if at least 50% of the questions are answered correctly.
If the grade of each test is higher than 8, the exam is not obligatory; the final score of the course consists of the arithmetic mean of two test jobs.
If 75% of lectures are not visited and 2 tests successfully settled, the student shall not be admitted to the examination.

Compulsory reading

1. Liepa I., Mauriņš A., Vimba E. 1991 Ekoloģija un dabas aizsardzība. Rīga: Zvaigzne, 1991. 298 lpp.
2. Švarcbahs J. u.c. Ekoloģija un vides aizsardzība. Mācību līdzeklis. Jelgava: LLU, 2001. 201 lpp.
3. Kimmins J. P. Forest Ecology. 3rd ed. New Jersey : Prentice-Hall, 2003. 720 p.
4. Dreimanis A. Mežsaimniecības pamati, mācību līdzeklis LLU Meža fakultātes studentiem un nozares speciālistiem, A/S LVM, Jelgava: LLU Meža fakultāte, Studentu biedrība "Šalkone". 2016. 219 lpp.
5. Latvijas meža tipoloģija, mācību līdzeklis LLU Meža fakultātes studentiem un nozares speciālistiem, A/S LVM, Jelgava: LLU Meža fakultāte, Studentu biedrība "Šalkone". 2014. 117 lpp.

Further reading

1. Introduction to Forest Science. 1990 R.A.Young and R.L.Giese: Editors. New, Singapora: John Wiley sons, 1990. 586 p.
2. Miezīte O. Meža aizsardzība un apsardzība. I daļa Meža entomoloģija, mācību līdzeklis LLU Meža fakultātes studentiem un nozares speciālistiem, A/S LVM, Jelgava: LLU Meža fakultāte, Studentu biedrība "Šalkone". 2015. 172 lpp.
3. Miezīte O. Meža aizsardzība. II daļa Meža fitopatoloģija, mācību līdzeklis LLU Meža fakultātes studentiem un nozares speciālistiem, A/S LVM, Jelgava: LLU Meža fakultāte, Studentu biedrība "Šalkone". 2017. 173 lpp.

Periodicals and other sources

1. Forest Ecology. Journal of Forest Sciences in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. ISSN: 1392-1355.
2. Silva Fennica. The International Journal of Forestry and Forest Industries.ISSN: 0037-5330.
3. Лесоведение: журнал Института лесоведения Российской академии наук. ISSN: 0024-1148.