Course code LauZ4219

Credit points 6

Crop Production I

Total Hours in Course162

Number of hours for lectures32

Number of hours for laboratory classes32

Independent study hours98

Date of course confirmation17.03.2020

Responsible UnitInstitute of Soil and Plant Science

Course developers

author prof.

Zinta Gaile

Dr. agr.

author lect.

Madara Misule

Mg. agr.

Prior knowledge

Biol1001, Botany

Biol3006, Plant Physiology II

Biol3008, Microbiology

Biol3014, Plant Physiology I

LauZ2042, Soil Science

LauZ3053, Field Cultivation

LauZ3170, Entomology

LauZ4006, Genetics and Plant Breeding

LauZ4031, Mechanisation of Agriculture

LauZ4252, Plant Pathology

Course abstract

Students acquire theoretical base of yield formation: agro-ecological factors exerting an influence on field crops yield, their unity and interaction; levels of yield and methods to calculate them. Students acquire seed science and organization of seed production, morphological and anatomical differences of different seeds. Seed quality, certification and sales processes. Students acquire knowledge in importance and distribution of cereals, their demands for growing, developmental peculiarities, agricultural practices and evaluation of cereal quality.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Examination (the type of examination (oral / written) is agreed upon at the beginning of the semester). The exam is awarded if all the tests and independent work have been successfully passed in the study course, as well as laboratory works have been passed.

After completing the course student will have:
• knowledge - on agro-ecological factors influencing field crops yield, and their interaction; on seed production and seed certification in Latvia, on morphology, agro-ecological demands, crop management and yield quality of cereals;
• skills - to identify different seeds, to detect seed and grain quality parameters, and to use them; to utilize seed certificates and to calculate cereals’ yield according to given values of agro-ecological parameters; to choose crop management operations and to draw up crop management plan for cereals;
• competence - to organize cereal production, harvesting, first stage processing, storage and sale, to choose suitable cultivars, to manage seed production branch, to study scientific literature and to carry out further self-education on topics included into the study course.

• Knowledge, skills and competences during the study course are assessed three written tests and two independent works with oral presentation, as well as completing all laboratory work.

Course Content(Calendar)

Lectures (32 h)
1. Introduction to crop production (2 h): crop production as a basic industry of agricultural production, its description, importance and connection with other production sectors. Level of development of the sector and problems in the world, Latvia and other countries. Classification of crops.
2. Theoretical basics of field crop production (12 h): agroecological factors affecting crop productivity, blocks of crop influencing factors: non-regulated, semi-regulated and regulated factors. Possible yield levels. Effect of photosynthetically active radiation (FAR), temperature, amount of productive water, nutrient regime on plant growth and development. Possibility to forecast and calculate field crop yield. Energy balance of crop production. Yield structural elements and their formation on field.
3. Seed production (3 h): the concept of seed in crop production, its significance in the crop production. Variety concept, characteristics and principles of variety selection. Regulatory documents for seed cultivation and seed trade, catalogue of plant varieties. Seed production system and its organization. Variety registration, variety protection. Certification of seed. Seed quality indicators: seed purity, germination, viability, germination energy, coarseness.
4. Cereals (10 h). Division in I and II group cereals. Growth and development of cereal plants. Phenological phases and decimal code. Chemical composition and quality characteristics of grains. Winter cereals, their biological characteristics and ecological requirements, yield levels, advantages and problems of cultivation, winter hardiness, characterization of major winter cereal species, economic importance, technological plan of cultivation of winter wheat, rye, triticale, winter barley. Species of spring crops: most important species in Europe and in the world (wheat, barley, oats). Characterization of species, directions of use and quality indicators, ecological characteristics, growth characteristics of spring cereals, peculiarities of beer barley cultivation.
Group II cereals. Buckwheat - importance and general characteristics of their cultivation, ecological requirements, peculiarities of growth and development, cultivation technology. Maize - general characteristics, importance of cultivation in the world and in Latvia. Maize growing technology; silage, biogas, grain, etc. Prose, sorghum, rice, quinoa- their general characteristics, importance of cultivation and districts.
Harvesting, pre - processing and storage. Harvesting times and techniques. Grain loss, characterization. Life processes in grains (seeds) during storage.
5. Preparation of the technological plan of arable crop cultivation (5 h): selection of suitable agrotechnology for a certain crop level for a particular crop and place of cultivation - soil characterization, soil tillage type, basic fertilizers, sowing, plant protection plan during the vegetation period. Management of field crop data using the programs available on the market.

List of laboratory work:
1. Characteristics and morphological differences between different cereal species of field crop’s fruit and seeds, seed identification. (2 h).
2. Structure of cereal plant (I, II group), structure of ears and tufts; differences between species (1 h).
3. Determination and evaluation of quality parameters of cereal seed quality (purity, moisture, germination capacity, viability, 1000 seed weight, grain size distribution), seed documentation, calculation of sowing rates. (10 h)
4. Determination of cereal grain quality - bulk density, protein content, gluten content, falling number of cereals). (4 h)
5. Determination of wheat species and varieties. Variety characteristics. (3 h)
6. Morphological features of rye and triticale (2 h)
7. Identification of barley species and varieties. Variety characteristics (3 h)
8. Identification of oat species and varieties. Variety characteristics (2 h)
9. Field survey, documentation (1 h)
10. Compilation of desired crop structural elements for a given crop yield level for different cereal species (2 h)

11. Economic assessment of crop yields (based on the analysis model) for the various uses (2 h)

Requirements for awarding credit points

Examination (the type of examination (oral / written) is agreed upon at the beginning of the semester). The exam is awarded if all the tests and independent work have been successfully passed in the study course, as well as laboratory works have been passed.

All intended laboratory works are developed and defended, 5 tests / individual works are written.
Test / individual work topics
1. Introduction to Crop Production and Theoretical Basics of Field Crop Production.
2. Seed production.
3. Cereals - species (oral presentation).
4. Cereals - growth and development, grain quality, species.
5. Technological plan for cereal production (individual or group work with presentation)

The final mark is accumulating according to the results of the semester: if the total points for tests / independent work are 50 points – accumulative final mark is –10 (excellent); accumulative final mark can be obtained if 35 – 50 (35 - 39 = 7, 40 - 45 = 8, 46 - 49 = 9) points are gain. If the total points are lower, the student must take an assessment examination.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Independent work includes literature studies, preparation for tests and seminars, independent problem solving; preparation of a technological plan for a definite harvest. Independent processing and formation of laboratory results.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Tests done during the study course are graded on a 10-ball scale, which is equal to the point at which the cumulative grade is calculated. The marks obtained during the semester can be accumulated in the final mark if it is at least 35 points (7 balls) or higher. At the end of the course students take the exam. Students get an exam mark if they have successfully passed all the tests and independent work.

Compulsory reading

1. Augkopība (2004). A. Ružas red. Jelgava: LLU. 374 lpp.
2. Augkopība: Rokasgrāmata (2001). A. Ružas red. Jelgava: LLU. 324 lpp.
3. Augkopības praktikums (1980). P. Freimanis, I. Holms, J. Jurševskis, J. Lauva, A. Ruža. Rīga: Zvaigzne. 325 lpp.
4. Bankina B., Gaile Z. (2014). Ziemāju labības un to slimības. Jelgava, LLU. 104 lpp.
5. Gaile Z., Bartuševics J. (2012) Kukurūzas audzēšana un izmantošana. Jelgava: LLU. 40 lpp.
6. Handbuch des Pflanzenbaues 1. Grundlagen der Landwirtschaft lichen Pflanzenproduktion (1997) Keller E.R., Hanus H., Heyland K.U.. Verlag Engen Ulmer, 860 s.

7. Jurševskis L., Holms I., Freimanis P. (1988) Augkopība. Rīga: Zvaigzne. 569 lpp.

Further reading

1. Copeland L.O., McDonald M.B. (1995) Principles of Seed Science and Technology. 3rd Edition. USA: Chapman & Hall. 409 p.
2. Kunkulberga D., Ruža A. (2009) Kviešu un rudzu graudu uzturvērtība un izmantošana maizes ražošanā. Jelgava: LLU. 55 lpp.
3. Агрономия (2001). Под редакцией В.Д. Мухи. Москва: Колос, 504 с.

4. Каюмов М.К. (1989) Программирование урожаев сельскохозяйственных культур. Москвa: Агропромиздат. 320 c.

Periodicals and other sources

Žurnāli un zinātnisko rakstu krājumi:
Rural Sustainability Research (LLU Raksti),
Agronomijas Vēstis,
Agronomy Research,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica,
Sec. B Soil and Plant Science,
LF konferenču Rakstu krājumi – atbilstoši tematikai.

Nozares žurnāli – „Agrotops”, „Saimnieks”, „TopAgrar”, “Das Magazin für Modern Landwirtshaft”, „AgriFuture for European Business Farmers” u. tml.