Course code Ekon5143

Credit points 3

Audit Process

Total Hours in Course81

Number of hours for lectures12

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes12

Independent study hours57

Date of course confirmation19.02.2019

Responsible UnitInstitute of Economics and Finance

Course developer

author Ekonomikas un finanšu institūts

Romēna Šulca

Dr. oec.

Prior knowledge

Ekon5082, Financial Accounting I

Ekon6040, Risk Management Process

Course abstract

The course deepens the knowledge and broadens the understanding of the audit process. Students explore, analyse and assess the theoretical aspects of audit and the historical development of audit, broadly reflecting the theoretical ideas, discussions and reviews. The course summarises and analyses the development of the institutional audit system in the world and Latvia as well as deals with the regulatory framework and basic legal principles for audit. The course focuses on the audit process and compliance with the International Standards on Auditing, the Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing and the Code of Ethics.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Students will be able to
1. Demonstrate the knowledge of theoretical aspects and historical evolution of audit Specialised literature studies, a test.
2. Demonstrate an in-depth understanding of the institutional system and legal framework for audit, the International Standards on Auditing, the Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing and the Code of Ethics Test.
3. Demonstrate an extended knowledge of audit methods and approaches Independent work – theses on how to solve particular problems.
4. Discuss the audit process, independently apply the theoretical knowledge acquired and the method learnt and reasonably argue and substantiate the conclusions drawn Case studies, group work.
5. Independently develop their own competences and analyse and assess the mission of internal and external auditing, given the value of the organisation, contributing to risk-based and unbiased confidence in reliability of financial reports for potential users Independent work – a report and a presentation on key theses.
6. Responsibly plan the completion of the assignments given Independent work.
7. Select information and present the calculations performed and proposals made as well as communicate Independent work.

8. Independently formulate and critically analyse the theoretical and practical knowledge acquired and justify the decisions made as well as, in necessary, do an additional analysis on the application of standards in the audit process, thereby proving the understanding of the audit process and its role in an organisation Tests, a project report.

Course Content(Calendar)

1) Theoretical aspects of the audit process and their historical development. Theoretical aspects of audit: interpretations of audit terms, analysis of historical development, modern approaches. Audit definitions are their common and different elements. Historical development and peculiarities today. Different models, approaches and methods. Common and different in the external and internal audit process. Audit process in accordance with best world practice. Comparative assessment of the cooperation between the internal and external auditor. Development trends of Latvian internal audit: historical chronological distribution. Assessments of audit development provided by various researchers, experts and organizations. (lecture - 2 hours, practical work - 2 hours).
2) Development of the audit institutional system. Development processes of the audit institutional system in the world and in Latvia: the beginnings of the external and internal audit institutional system, development of methodology, development of standardization. Activities of the Association of Sworn Auditors. Activities of the Institute of Internal Auditors. Structure of the audit institutional system, authorization mechanism, audit ethics issues, quality of audit work and professional development. Development of International Standards on Auditing and International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing. (lecture - 2 hours, practical work - 2 hours).
3) Regulatory and legal aspects regulating the field of audit. Normative and legal acts regulating the field of audit. Analysis of regulatory enactments, base. Internal audit policy: internal audit coordination and unified long-term development planning of internal audit. Tasks of implementing the internal audit policy. Regulatory enactments regulating the internal audit policy: the Law on Internal Audit, regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers on the procedure for performing and evaluating internal audit. State policy in the field of company audit. Cooperation of the State Supervision of the Latvian Association of Sworn Auditors with the Competent Institutions of Other European Union Member States in the Field of Audit. lecture - 2 hours, practical work - 2 hours).
4) International Standards on Auditing (ISAs). Scope, objectives and requirements of the IAS. Scope, powers and structure of SRSs. The general objective of the independent auditor and the performance of the audit in accordance with the requirements of international auditing standards. Agreement on the terms of the audit engagement. Audit documentation. Financial statement audit planning. Identifying and assessing the risks of significant non-compliance by gaining an understanding of the company and its environment. Materiality in planning and performing an audit. Auditor activities resulting from the risk assessment. Audit evidence. Analytical procedures. Sampling method in audit. Use of the work of internal auditors. Preparation of the auditor's opinion and reporting on the financial statements. Reporting on key audit issues in an independent auditor's report. Modifications to the opinion contained in the independent auditor's report. Comparable information - relevant indicators and comparable financial statements. (lecture - 4 hours, practical work - 4 hours).

5) Internal Audit Professional Practice Standards (hereinafter - Standards). Purpose of the standards. Minimum requirements for standards. Code of ethics: norms of professional ethics. There are two main categories of standards: organizational and performance standards. Internal audit in the organization. Purpose, authority and responsibility of internal audit. Independence and objectivity of the internal audit unit. Competence and due professional care. Internal audit quality assurance and improvement system. Performance standards: the essence of internal audit, quality criteria. Management of the internal audit unit. Planning. Internal audit activity plans and resource requirements. Resource management. Internal audit policy and procedures for managing the internal audit unit. Internal audit coordination. Reporting to senior management. Outsourcing. Management. Risk management. Control. Task planning. Task work program. Execution of the task. Identification of information. Analysis and evaluation. Documentation of information. Task supervision. Communication of results, criteria, quality and dissemination. Workflow monitoring. Resolution on risk accepted by senior management: level of residual risk, risk appetite.(lecture - 2 hours, practical work - 2 hours).

Requirements for awarding credit points

Test with a mark, accumulative evaluation of study results. During the acquisition of the study course, 2 tests are written, which are assessed with marks. 1) International auditing standards (20%). 2) Internal Audit Professional Practice Standards (20%). Prepare and submit a report-project "Evaluation of the audit process: Audit of financial statements in the company" or "Evaluation of the audit process: Internal audit in the organization" (60%)

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

To master and strengthen the issues of theory, to study the literature in preparation for tests. Develop individual work and present it.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Accumulative assessment of study results (100%). 2 tests (20% + 20%). Independent work (60%).
10% corresponds to one point on the 10-point assessment scale.

Compulsory reading

1. Bruna I. Enterprise Internal Audit and Control. Riga, University of Latvia, 2010, pp.166.
2. Dante Ed. Audit Defense: A Management Audit Readiness Guide. 1st ed., Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2022, pp. 632.
3. Gray I. The audit process. Principles, Practice and Cases. 6th Edition. Cengage Learning EMEA, United Kingdom, 2015, pp. 920.
4. Reding K., F., Sobel P., J. Anderson U. L., Head M. J., Ramamoorti S., Salamasick M., Riddle C. Internal Auditing. Assurance & Advisory Services. Third edition. The Institute of Internal Auditors Research Foundation. Florida, 2013, pp.315.
5. Rittenberg L. COSO Internal Control-integrated Framework. Turning Principles into Positive Action. The Institute of Internal Auditors Research Foundation. Florida, 2013, pp. 80.
6. Sawyer Lawrence B., Dittenhofer Mortimer A., Scheiner James H. Sawyer’s Internal auditing. The Practice of Modern Internal Auditing. The Institute of Internal Auditors. Florida, 2003, pp.1446.

7. Spencer K.H. Pickett. The Internal Auditing Handbook. Third edition. A John Wiley and sons, Ltd, UK, 2010, pp.1070.

Further reading

1. Alexander D., Jorissen A., et al. International Financial Reporting & Analysis. Hampshire; UK: Cengage Learning EMEA, 2020. pp. 908.
2. Elliott J., Elliott B. Financial Accounting and Reporting. Twentieth Edition. Harlow; UK: Pearson Education Limited, 2022. pp.80.
3. Manson S. Audit Process: Principles, Practice and Cases 6th edition. Cengage Learning EMEA. 2015, pp.832.

4. Paterson James C. Lean Auditing: Driving Added Value and Efficiency in Internal Audit. John Wiley & Sons Inc.,2015, pp.328.

Periodicals and other sources

1. Eiropas Komisijas mājaslapa (revīzijas joma). Pieejams:
2. Ētikas kodekss. Pieejams:
3. Globālais iekšējais auditoru institūts. Pieejams:
4. Iekšējā audita politika. Pieejams:
5. Iekšējā audita profesionālās prakses starptautiskos standarti. Pieejams:
6. Latvijas Zvērinātu revidentu asociācijas mājaslapa. Pieejams:

7. Starptautiskās grāmatvežu federācijas mājas lapa. Pieejams:


Restricted elective study course for the academic master's study program "Economics" in the specialization direction "Financial Management and Accounting" for full-time students