Course code Vete3043

Credit points 3

Animal Welfare, Environment Hygiene II

Total Hours in Course120

Number of hours for lectures24

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes36

Independent study hours60

Date of course confirmation21.10.2020

Responsible UnitInstitute of Food and Environmental Hygiene

Course developer

author doc.

Iveta Kociņa

Dr. med. vet.

Prior knowledge

Vete3042, Animal Welfare, Environment Hygiene I

Course abstract

Students are learning about animal welfare, hygiene and biosecurity principals in farms as well as in other animal keeping places. During the year several animal species is being reviewed.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

For the work of Clinical and Epidemiological Case Analysis (KEGA), students choose one of the animal housing (farm animals) or other animal holdings with more than 5 animals according to individual wishes or recommendations of the head of the subject.
A Welfare Quality Assessment Protocol is completed during the welfare assessment (a summary with conclusions and recommendations).
The work (KEGA) consists of the following chapters:
Introduction: a short review of the literature on the topicality of the specific topic, incl. the selected animal species.
Assessment methodology: how the work is assessed and how the evaluation criteria is indicated.
Outcome: a description of the animal housing and type of farming, identification of welfare indicators, assessment, completion of the inspection report;
Results and suggestions: analysis of results, conclusions on welfare at the specific holding, recommendations and suggestions. A protocol following the welfare assessment should be attached. After submitting electronic form of the paper, it should be presented orally with an illustrated PowerPoint presentation of 5 to 7 minutes, expressing the most relevant information on subject of KEGA. The work must be submitted and defended within the deadline set by the course supervisor.

Course Content(Calendar)

10. Farm animal welfare and Environmental hygiene (species specific), critical aspects of welfare implementation (7h)
■ General and species specific welfare requirements for farm animals
■ Causes of poor welfare
■ Welfare assessment in livestock farms. Animal and housing environment indicators
Practicals (8h)
■ Different husbandry systems and their welfare potential
■ The most important welfare issues and related animal health risks
■ Multilation of animals, performance of non-medical operations, indications
Practicals (8h)
11. Livestock transport and trade (2h)
■ Animal transport: critical aspects of welfare and health
■ The market. Animal trafficking: critical aspects of welfare and health
Practicals (2h)
12. Slaughter and killing of farm animals (2h)
■ Conditions for slaughter and killing of animals, permitted methods
■ Ritual slaughter, according to the traditions of religious communities
■ Effectiveness of legislation in ensuring of basic welfare conditions
Practicals (2h)
13. Pet animal welfare, stray animals (4h)
■ Duties and responsibilities of animal owners
■ Multilation of animals, performance of non-medical operations, indications
■ Identification, marking and registration of animals
■ Stray animals, strategies for population control
■ Animal shelters and their functions
Practicals (2h)
■ Animal trade control
■ Breeding of animals and participation in exhibitions
■ Dangerous (aggressive) dogs
Practicals (2h)
14. Euthanasia of animals (1h)
■ Criteria, humane methods and considerations
■ Legal aspects of euthanasia
■ Communication with clients, animal owners
■ Euthanasia in disease control programs
Practicals (2h)
■ Euthanasia: criteria, humane methods and considerations
■ Legal aspects of euthanasia
■ Communication with customers, animal owners
■ Euthanasia in disease control programs
15. Welfare of animals used for scientific purposes, 3Rs concept in science and education (2h)
■ Experimental animals in research, diagnostics and education
■ Ethical consideration on the use of animals in research
■ Welfare conditions and key issues
■ 3Rs and alternatives
■ State supervision and control
Practicals (2h)
16. Working animals and animals for entertainment (2h)
■ Working animals, conditions for operating
■ Types of animal housing and care
■ Concept on animals - entertainers
■ Related welfare issues
■ Legislation, effectiveness in ensuring welfare
Practicals (2h)
17. Environmental enrichment (2h)
■ Types and basic principles of environmental enrichment
■ Environmental enrichment and feeding systems
■ The basic idea of environmental environment - ensuring of species-specific behavior.
Practicals (3h)
18. The role of the veterinarian in animal welfare (1h)
■ Understanding of animal welfare and ethics issues and use in practice
■ Ethical decision making in veterinary practice
Practicals (1h)
19. Humane education & education in animal welfare (2h)
■ Achieving humane goals in education
■ The role of veterinarians in changing attitudes towards animals
■ Use of curricula and non-formal education resources
Practicals (2h)

Requirements for awarding credit points

Clinical and epidemiological case analysis work (KEGA) and successfully completed exam.
Absence of lectures and practical works are not more than 30% of the total number of lessons.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Clinical and Epidemiological Case Analysis (KEGA) work is study on one farm/shelter which student can find by himself. Farm/shelter with minimum 5 animals. The work consists of the following chapters: introduction, methodology, short theoretical aspect about chosen animal species, description and analyze of farm, results and suggestions.
After submitting electronic form of the paper, it should be presented orally with an illustrated PowerPoint presentation of 5 to 7 minutes, expressing the most relevant information on subject, answering questions and justifying the information provided. The work must be submitted and defended within the deadline set by the course supervisor.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Student skills are assessed in accordance with the procedures specified in the tasks of the practical work.
Study course tests and KEGA work are evaluated in accordance with the criteria of the 10-point system scale indicated in the LLU Study Regulations.
To get the final grade of the study course "passed", final test and KEGA work must be evaluated with a successful grade.

Compulsory reading

1. Guidelines for humane handling, transport and slaughter of livestock. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2001. Pieejams:
2.Livestock Handling and Transport. Ed. T.Grandin. Oxon: CABI Publishing, 2000. 449 p.
3. Guide to good dairy farming practice. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Dairy Federation. Rome, 2011. Animal Production and Health Guidelines, No. 8. Pieejams:
4. Yeates J. Animal Welfare in Veterinary Practice. Wiley-Blackwell, 2013, 206 p.
5. Young R.J. Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.
6. Labas lauksaimniecības prakses nosacījumi Latvijā. Latvijas Republikas Zemkopības ministrija. Jelgava, 2008. 56 lpp.
7. Latvijas Republikas tiesību akti:
8. Green M. Dairy Herd Health. University of Nottingham, UK. 2012.
9. Oltenacu T., Algers B. Selection for increased production and the welfare of dairy cows: are new breeding goals needed? Ambio, No. 34, 2005, p. 311-315.
10. Veterinary & Animal Ethics. C. M.Wathes, S. A. Corr, S. A. May, S. P. McCulloch, M. C. Whiting. Wiley-Blckwell, 2013. 315 p.
11. Tucker C.B., Weary D.M. Stall design: enhancing cow comfort. Advances in Dairy Technology, No. 13, 2001, p. 154-167.

Further reading

1. Arey D., Brooke P. Animal Welfare Aspects of Good Agricultural Practice: pig production. Compassion in World Farming, Petersfield. 2006.
2. Beck A.M. The ecology of stray dogs: a study of free ranging urban animals. Ashland, USA: Purdue University Press, 2002.
3. Herlin A.H. Comparison of lying area surfaces for dairy cows by preference, hygiene, and lying down behaviour. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research, No. 27, 1997, p. 189-196.
4. Korte S.M., Olivier B., Koolhaas J.M. A new animal welfare concept based on allostasis. Physiology and Behaviour, No. 92(3), 2007, p. 422-228.
5. Management. RSPCA, 2000: Stranded Cetaceans – Guidelines for Veterinary Surgeons.
6.Mouttotou N., Hatchell F.M., Green L.E. Adventitious bursitis of the hock in finishing pigs: prevalence, distribution and association with floor type and foot lesions. Veterinary Record, No. 142, 1998, p. 109-114.
7. Warriss P.D., Bevis E.A., Brown S.N., Edwards J.E. Longer journeys to processing plants are associated with higher mortality in broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, No. 33, 1992, p. 201-206.

Periodicals and other sources

1. Animal Traction websites:
2. Compassion in World Farming website. Available from:
3. Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) reports on website. Available from:
4. COUNCIL REGULATION EC 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations. Available from: 4.pdf
5. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (J Am Vet Med Assoc), No.218, 2000, p. 669-696. Humane Slaughter Available online at:
6. Humane Slaughter Association. Website. Available from:
7. League Against Cruel Sports. Available from:
8. Captive Animals’ Protection Society. Available from:
9.Grandin T. Dr Temple Grandin’s Web page. Livestock Behaviour, Design of Facilities and Humane Slaughter. Available from:
10. Welfare Quality Network. Available from:
11. World Organization for animal health. Available from:


Compulsory course of study programme Veterinary medicine