Course code PārZ3002

Credit points 4.50

Milk, Milk Processing I

Total Hours in Course120

Number of hours for lectures24

Number of hours for laboratory classes24

Independent study hours72

Date of course confirmation13.04.2021

Responsible UnitInstitute of Food

Course developers

author prof.

Inga Ciproviča

Dr. sc. ing.

author Pārtikas institūts

Jeļena Zagorska

Dr. sc. ing.

Replaced course

PārZB008 [GPARB008] Milk, Milk Processing I

Course abstract

The main task of the course is to give the knowledge in milk processing for consumers safe and healthy products production. The students get knowledge of the chemical composition, properties and estimation criteria’s of raw milk. They acquire fundamentals in milk products production (thermally treated, fermented milk products and ice-cream) for understanding physical, biochemical and microbiological processes occurring during production. They gain information on the development of milk products faults and possibilities to avoid them. During laboratory works, they get practical experience in milk products production and their quality control.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Theoretical knowledge about milk composition and quality influencing factors, separate milk products’ production technologies and understanding of physical, chemical and microbiological processes occurring at milk products production – lectures, 1st, 2nd and 3rd colloquium, laboratory works.
Practical knowledge and skills - to explain milk products faults and possibilities to avoid them relating to milk composition, quality, and applied technological processes and parameters as well as technological aids; practical experience in the milk products quality testing – 4th anf 5th colloquium, laboratory works.

Competence – to be able organise milk products production, raw materials store and quality control according to the requirements of the legislative acts, as well as to analyse and evaluate risk factors in milk products’ production – laboratory works.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Introduction in the course: course structure, aim and tasks, learning outcomes. Milk secretion (Lecture – 1h)
2. Water in milk. Milk proteins, casein characteristics (Lecture – 1h). The analysis of milk composition (Laboratory work – 3h).
3. Whey proteins. Protein separation techniques applied in milk processing (Lecture – 2h). Milk protein separation methods (Laboratory work – 3h). 1st colloquium – Milk composition and protein separation techniques.
4. Milk lipids (Lecture – 1h).
5. Lactose, minerals, vitamins, antibodies, gases and somatic cells. Milk sensory and physically-chemical properties. Milk adulteration, substances (Lecture – 3h). Analysis of milk quality (Laboratory work – 3h).
6. The changes of milk composition and quality by several factors. Mandatory requirements on milk safety, legislative acts, their approach (Lecture – 2h). 2nd colloquium – Milk composition and quality, its variation and requirements of the legislative acts.
7. Milk mechanical and thermal treatment (Lecture – 2h). Milk separation and standardisation (Laboratory work – 3h, group work).
8. The calculation of thermal treatment parameters, they efficiency test (Lecture – 1h). The evaluation of homogenisation and thermal treatment efficiency (Laboratory work – 3h).
9. Sanitation and disinfection process, applied chemicals, concentrations and technology flow in the processing companies (Lecture – 1h). 3rd colloquium – Milk mechanical and thermal treatment.
10. Thermally treated milk and cream technology. The solutions for lactose reduction in milk, classical approach and advanced technologies (Lecture – 2h).
11. Dairy starters, starters’ production technology (Lecture – 1h).
12. Fermented milk products (drinks) technology (Lecture – 2h). The analysis of starter quality and fermented milk products (Laboratory work – 3h). 4th colloquium – Thermally and fermented milk products production.
13. Fermented milk products technology, their faults, prevention and prediction possibilities (Lecture – 2h). The study of syneresis process in the curd production (Laboratory work – 3h).
14. Ice-cream production technology, its defects, prevention possibilities (Lecture – 2h).
15. Excursion to dairy processing company which specialises in fermented milk products, as well as ice-cream production (Laboratory work – 3h).

16. 5th colloquium – Fermented milk products and ice-cream production. Introduction in the study course Milk, milk processing II (Lecture – 1h).

Requirements for awarding credit points

Test with a mark is resulted from:
• completed laboratory works and presented laboratory works results (50%);

• successfully written five colloquiums in the study course thematics (50%).

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Independent work is to acquaint with the Regulations of European Parliament and Commission on animal origin products production, safety, quality criteria’s; to acquire the formation of milk products faults; to introduce with milk products production (video materials, animations in e-studies or suggested in the lectures); to analyse the elaborated laboratory work results and to make conclusions and results interpretation.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

A colloquium consists of multiple choice and open-ended questions, it evaluates in the 10 point scale. In an each question has showed a maximal available points. The colloquium is successfully written if students get minimally 4 points. If the evaluation is lower than previously set, students should write the colloquium repeatedly (in this case the average evaluation of colloquium is summarized from both colloquiums (unsuccessfully and successfully written)). A laboratory work is evaluated as a pass. The assessment of the study course is resulted from colloquium results (mean) and successfully completed/presented laboratory works.

Compulsory reading

Ozola L., Ciproviča I. Piena pārstrādes tehnoloģija. Jelgava: LLU, 2002., 248 lpp.
Dairy science and technology/ P.Walstra, J.T.M. Wouters, T.J.Geurts. Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2006., 782 p.
Dairy microbiology handbook/ edited by R. K. Robinson. New York: Wiley Interscience, 2002., 765 p.

Further reading

Milk proteins: from expression to food/edited by M.Boland, H.Singh. 3rd edit. London: Academic Press, 2020., 748 p.
Microbiology handbook. Dairy products/ edited by R.Fernandes. Leatherhead: Leatherhead Food International; Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2009., 173 p.

Kārkliņa D., Ciproviča I. Pārtikas produktu tehnoloģija/Starpaugstskolu akadēmiskā maģistra studiju programma "Uzturzinātne": mācību materiāls, Rīga: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2008.-65 lpp.

Periodicals and other sources

Quality Management in Food Chains/ edited by L.Theuvsen. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2007., 509 p.
Journal of Dairy Science
International Dairy Journal