Course code Ķīmi3004

Credit points 4


Total Hours in Course160

Number of hours for lectures32

Number of hours for laboratory classes32

Independent study hours96

Date of course confirmation30.03.2021

Responsible UnitDepartment of Chemistry

Course developer

author Ķīmijas katedra

Ingmārs Cinkmanis

Dr. sc. ing.

Prior knowledge

Ķīmi1028, Inorganic Chemistry

Ķīmi3016, Organic Chemistry

Course abstract

Students will obtain knowledge, skills and competence on biochemical transformations, their catalysis with enzymes, regulations of transformations by information flow through biochemical signalling, as well as on matter and energy flows through metabolism that will give rise to complexity of life and will form the base for further studies of physiology of animals and veterinary courses.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

The given study course creates base of fundamental knowledge in molecular level for further studies of veterinary, e.g., physiology of animals, pharmacology, and clinical biochemistry and for professional activities – 1., 2., 3., and 4. Test.
The skills to make in use the theoretical knowledge on pathways of metabolism and their regulation in tissues cells in the further veterinary medicine studies and in solving professional problems will be developed during biochemistry studies. These skills assists to create scientifically based hypothesis and their possible solutions on the base of empirical data and recent theoretical cognitions - laboratory works.
The competence will be developed to students to be able to explain progress of biochemical reactions on the molecular level both specialists, and clients, as well as to be well-informed expert in the solving complicated problems - colloquium, home works.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Lecture: Biocatalysis. / Instruction of laboratory rules and safety. 1.Lab work: Quantitative determination of proteins by the formaldehyde method - 2h
2. Lecture: Mechanism of action, inhibition and regulation of enzymes. / 2. Lab work: Enzyme and substrate concentration effect of on the reaction rate - 2h / 1.Homework
3. Lecture: Bioenergy. Glycolysis. / 3. Lab work: The starch hydrolysis with amylase and enzyme substrate specificity - 2h / 1.Test: Enzyme
4. Lecture: Carbohydrate metabolism. / 4. Lab Work: Evaluation of tissue respiratory intensity - 2h
5. Lecture: Penthosphosphate cycle. Glycogen degradation and biosynthesis. / 5. Lab work: Oxy-reductases - 2h
6. Lecture: Gluconeogenesis and interactions between monosaccharides. / 6. Lab work: Determination of milk lactose - 2h / 2. Homework
7. Lecture: Lipid catabolism. / 7. Lab work: Determination of fats peroxide value - 2h / 2. Test: Oxidative phosphorylation, Krebs cycle
8. Lecture: Lipid biosynthesis. / 8. un 9. Lab work: Properties of pancreas lipase and bile. Determination of ketone content in the urine - 2h
9. Lecture: Proteolysis. Common metabolic processes of amino acids. / 10. Lab work: Amino acid qualitative paper chromatography - 2h
10. Lecture: Specific metabolic transformations and role of amino acids. / 11. un 12. Lab work: Protein enzymatic hydrolysis. Gastric juice - 2h / 3. Homework
11. Lecture: Nucleic acid and nucleotide metabolism. / 13. Lab work: Muscle tissue fractionation - 2h / 3. Test: Lipid and amino acid metabolism
12. Lecture: Gene translation, its regulation. / 14. Lab work: Yeast nucleoprotein hydrolysis - 2h
13. Lecture: Electrolyte replacement. Organism buffering systems., Transport of substances through membranes. / 15. Lab work: Uric acid and urea - 2h
14. Lecture: Metabolism of integration and regulation. Hormone action mechanisms. / 16. Lab work: Muscle tissue extractives - 2h
15. Lecture: Biochemistry of blood and nervous tissue. Nucleic acid metabolism. / colloquium / 4. Home work
16. Lecture: Biochemistry of muscle and connective tissue. / 4. Test: Protein Biosynthesis. Metabolism of integration and regulation. / colloquium

Requirements for awarding credit points

Completed exam in the Inorganic Chemistry and tests in Organic chemistry, 16.laboratory works and 4 tests with no lower mark in tests than 4 points.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Preparation of laboratory reports - compilation and systematization of chemical reactions, observation, conclusions and experimental progress.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

It is necessary to write successfully all tests, i.e. no lower mark than 4 points. All laboratory work protocols must be checked and completed. If the accumulated mark of successful written tests is not less than 7 (good) and all the laboratory works are completed, then exam does not have to be written.

Compulsory reading

1. Morozovs A., Jākobsone I., Mekšs P. Pārtikas ķīmija. Rīga: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2008. 208 lpp. 2. Garrett R.H., Grisham C.M. Biochemistry. Australia etc.: Thomson Books/Cole, 2005, p.1086-1169. 3. Miķelsone, V. Bioķīmija: mācību līdzeklis. Jelgava: LLU, 2008. 197 lpp. 4. Comprehensive glycoscience: from chemistry to systems biology. Vol. 3. Biochemistry of glyco-conjugate glycans. Carbohydrate-mediated interactions. Editor-in-chief J.P. Kamerling. Oxford: Elsevier, 2007. 902 p.

Further reading

1. Fry M. Essential Biochemistry for Medicine. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. 308 p. 2. Handbook of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 4th Edition. Edited by Rogur L. Lundblad and Fiona M . MacDonald. CRC Press 2010, eBook ISBN: 978-1-4200-0869-2. Pieejams LLU FB datubāze CRCnetBase : 3. Lipoic Acid. Energy Production, Antioxidant Activity and Health Effects. Edited by M.S.Patel and L.Pack. CRC Press 2008, eBook ISBN: 978-1-4200-4539-0 Pieejams LLU FB datubāze CRCnetBase

Periodicals and other sources

1. Journal of Animal Science, American Society of Animal Science, Print ISSN 0021-8812, Online ISSN 1525-3163 2. The Veterinary Journal. Elsevier. Published by Elsevier Science. ISSN: 1090-0233. Pieejams LLU FB datubāzē ScienceDirect. 3. GEO: izzināt un saprast pasauli. Rīga: Izdevniecība Lilita Z. ISSN 1691-5046.


2nd level professional study “Veterinary Medicine”