Course code PārZ5025

Credit points 3

Food Aroma

Total Hours in Course120

Number of hours for lectures20

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes8

Number of hours for laboratory classes20

Independent study hours72

Date of course confirmation19.02.2014

Responsible UnitDepartment of Food Technology

Course developers

author Pārtikas tehnoloģijas katedra

Zanda Krūma

Dr. sc. ing.

author Pārtikas tehnoloģijas katedra

Mārtiņš Šabovics

Dr. sc. ing.

Course abstract

During the study course, the students acquire knowledge about the distribution, formation and importance of food aroma substances. Knowledge of major analytical methods for extracting and identifying aroma compounds is acquired. Get knowledges about the aroma-forming substances in herbs, fruits, vegetables, cereals, milk, meat and fish products. Skills to evaluate changes in aroma compounds as a result of various technological processes (freezing, drying, fermenting, baking), as well as getting acquainted with the latest research available on scenting substances available in scientific databases.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

1. Having a good knowledge about the classification, formation, importance, the most important analytical methods of food aroma compounds - 1st test, practical works 2. Having a good knowledge about the most important food aroma compounds and their changes during technological processes - 2nd test, practical work, 3. To be able to analyze and explain the methods of identification of food aroma compounds and interpretation of results - practical works. 4. To be able to analyze is able to analyze the formation of various food flavouring substances - laboratory works. 5. Ability to evaluate and analyze the changes of food flavouring substances under various factors and is able to choose appropriate technological processes for the improvement of food flavour - independent work

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Aroma compounds in food, their characterization. Synthetic flavorings, their applications (Lecture - 2; practical works - 1)
2. Food flavor release, factors affecting it. Undesirable aromas, their formation (Lecture - 1; practical works - 1).
3 Characterization of extraction methods of aroma compounds (Lecture - 1; practical works - 1).
4 Methods for analysis and identification of aroma compounds. Olfactometry (Lecture - 1; practical works - 2).
5 Flavoring substances in spices and herbs, their formation, importance and properties. (Lecture - 1; practical work - 1)
6 Essential oils, hydrosols, methods of their extraction and application in food. (Lecture - 1; Laboratory works - 3)
7 Aroma in fruits and vegetables. (Lecture - 1; laboratory works - 2)
8 Changes in aroma compounds in fruit and vegetable processing processes (drying, freezing). (Lecture - 2; laboratory works - 2)
9 Aroma formation in alcohol fermentation processes for beer, wine and cider (Lecture - 2; laboratory works - 3).
10 Changes in aroma compounds under the influence of alcohol beverage storage processes (Lecture - 1; Laboratory works - 2).
11 Aroma compounds in grains and their changes in dough fermentation (Lecture - 1).
12 Characteristics of aroma compounds forming in the baking process (Lecture - 1; Laboratory works - 3).
13 Aroma compounds in dairy products, their changes due to fermentation processes (Lecture - 1).
14 Aroma compounds in cheese making and maturing (Lecture - 1; Laboratory works - 2).
15 Aroma compounds in meat and fish products and their changes due to fermentation processes (Lecture - 2; Laboratory works - 3).
16 Recent research on aroma compounds in food (review of publications published in recent years' databases) (Lecture - 1; practical works - 2).

Requirements for awarding credit points

Attended practical works, worked out laboratory works, successfully written two tests, written and presented independent work.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

For the development of independent work, students choose a product for which changes will be analyzed under the influence of the technological process. Initially, a theoretical study is carried out by evaluating the latest scientific literature, followed by the choice of analytical methods, and the development of an experimental part by analyzing aromatics using a gas chromarograph and using other analytical or sensory research methods according to the chosen product and if necessary. In the end, written work is being prepared and presented.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The assessment of the study course exam is calculated as an arithmetic mean taking into account 3 evaluations: the assessments of two tests and the quality and presentations of the written part of the independent work (answers to the questions).
Assessment of independent work consists of a written part of 70%; and its presentation 30%).

Compulsory reading

1. Flavour in food. Edited by Andrée Voilley and Patrick Etiévant. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing; Boca Raton ; CRC Press, 2006. 451 p.
2. Flavor chemistry and technology. 2nd ed. by Gary Reineccius. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, USA, 2006. 465 p. Pieejama CRCnet
3. Kūka P. Pārtikas produktu analīžu fizikāli ķīmiskās metodes. Jelgava: LLU, 2008. 174 lpp.
4. Fenaroli’s handbook of flavor ingredients [elektroniskais resurss] / George A. Burdock. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, c2010. 2135 p.

Further reading

1. Kruma Z., Kreicbergs V. Garšaugu ēteriskās eļļas. Jelgava: LLU, 2009. 68 lpp
2. Flavor, fragrance and odor analysis. Edited by Ray Marsili. Marcel Dekker, USA, 2002. Pieejama CRCnet 2011.g.
3. Cheese: chemistry, physics and microbiology. Edited by Patrick F.Fox et al. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, 2004. Vol.1. and 2.
4. Handbook of essential oils : science, technology, and applications / K. Hüsnü Can Baser, Gerhard Buchbauer. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, USA, 2010, p. 736 p. Tiešsaiste

Periodicals and other sources

1. Food Chemistry. Published by Elsevier. ISSN: 0308-8146. Pilnas publikācijas Science Direct datubāzē.
2. LWT - Food Science and Technology. Published by Elsevier Science. ISSN (printed): 0023-6438. ISSN (electronic): 1096-1127. Pilnas publikācijas Science Direct datubāzē.
3. Phytochemistry. Published by Elsevier Science. ISSN 0031-9422. Pieejams LLU FB datubāzē Science Direct datubāzē


Food Science, Master study programme