Course code PārZ4060

Credit points 2

Food Additives

Total Hours in Course80

Number of hours for lectures16

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes8

Number of hours for laboratory classes8

Independent study hours48

Date of course confirmation14.02.2017

Responsible UnitDepartment of Food Technology

Course developer

author prof.

Inga Ciproviča

Dr. sc. ing.

Prior knowledge

Ķīmi2018, Food Organic Chemistry

Ķīmi2019, Physical and Colloidal Chemistry

Course abstract

The aim of the study subject is to provide a comprehensive overview of food additives, to define the role and functions of food additives in food products production and maintenance of food quality and safety, to characterise potential benefits and risks of additives for human consumption, to acquaint in food additives law and regulations, to gain a basic understanding of food additives application and to review a basic food processing and packaging techniques for additives substitution in food products production.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Theoretical knowledge - ability to understand the role of food additives in food production; ability to apply knowledge on food additives in food production – lectures, practical and laboratory works, and seminars.
Practical knowledge and skills – ability to apply skills associated with an application and functions of food additives in food production and also with their reflection into food labelling, master the terminology of food additives – independent work.

Competence – acquisition of theoretical knowledge of food additives in food production and technological methods of their substitution; ability to make decision for an application of current additive/es in food production; ability to analyse food additives relative risk for health of consumers; ability to utilize knowledge regarding to food additives in other areas/subjects of food quality and safety studies – practical un laboratory works, independent work and final work (colloquium).

Course Content(Calendar)

1. The structure of the course. Food additives, the aim of usage, functions of food additives, functional groups (1h lectures).
2. Regulation of food additives usage, its analysis (2h lecture; 1h seminar).
3. Risks and benefits of food additives application (1h lectures).
4. Food additives terminology, abbreviation, their explanation, international numbering system of food additives (1h seminar).
5. Preservatives and antioxidants, their evaluation. Most common used preservatives' characteristics (2h lecture, 2h practical work).
6. Food additives for flavour and aroma improvement: flavour enhancers, sweeteners, acidity regulators (1h lecture, 2h laboratory works).
7. Usage of sweeteners for sugar replacement, benefits and technological solutions (1h lecture, 2h practical work).
8. Food additives for improvement of product likeness (1h lecture).
9. Food colourants, their comparison. Safety concerns for artificial colourants (1h lecture, 2h laboratory work).
10. Food additives for improvement of food rheological properties (2h lecture)
11. Food additives for improvement of food rheological properties (2h seminar).
12. Emulsifiers, emulsion function. Examples for emulsifiers’ application (2h laboratory work).
13. Starch, cellulose derivatives, algae and microbially produced polysaccharides - sources for stabilisers (1h lecture, 2h laboratory work).
14. Food additives for technological process management. Phosphates in food products (1h lecture).
15. Technological solutions for food additives' substitutions (1h lecture).

16. Colloquium. The summary and conclusions.

Requirements for awarding credit points

Test with a mark is resulted from:
• completed practical works (20%);
• successfully presented an independent work (40%);

• final work (40%).

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Independent work is to acquaint with a usage of food additives in the chosen products production (substantiation, application frequency, conformity to food additives legislative acts, functionality and safety should be evaluated), as well as to evaluate substitution of food additives with technological processes, equipment or technological aids in the chosen products production. The independent work is prepared as a report and should be presented to the students’ auditorium.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Test with a mark is resulted from prepared and presented independent work, completed all practical works and seminars, and written final work which includes multiple choice and open-ended questions, a situation approach and a practical experience demonstration using the legislative acts.

Compulsory reading

Ozola L. Pārtikas piedevas. - Rīga: NEO, 2003. - 112 lpp.
Natural food additives, ingredients and flavourings / edited by David Baines and Richard Seal. Oxford; Philadelphia, PA: Woodhead Pub., 2012. - 460 p.
Food Additives/ edited by A.Branen, P.Davidson, S.Salminen, J. Thorgate. 2nd ed., rev. and expanded. - New York, Basel: Marcel Decker, Inc., 2002. - 938 p.

Sweeteners. Leatherhead: Leatherhead Publishing; Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. - 304 p.

Further reading

Food Colorants. Chemical and Functional Properties. Edited by C.Socaciu. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2008. – 633 p.
Natural colourants: Science and technology/edited by G.Lauro, F.Francis. - New York; Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2000. - 336 p.

Food chemistry/ edited by H.D. Belitz, W. Grosch, P. Schieberle. Berlin: Springer, 2009. - 1070 p.

Periodicals and other sources


Obligatory course for students of the second-level professional higher education study program "Food Technology", and the academic bachelor study program "Food Quality and Innovations".