Course code PārZ3080

Credit points 8

Cereal Technology

Total Hours in Course320

Number of hours for lectures50

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes20

Number of hours for laboratory classes58

Independent study hours192

Date of course confirmation21.03.2018

Responsible UnitDepartment of Food Technology

Course developers

author prof.

Tatjana Ķince

Dr. sc. ing.

author Pārtikas tehnoloģijas katedra

Dace Kļava

Dr. sc. ing.

author Uztura katedra

Anita Blija

Dr. sc. ing.

author Pārtikas tehnoloģijas katedra

Evita Straumīte

Dr. sc. ing.

Prior knowledge

PārZ3088, Food Processing Equipment

PārZ3089, New Food Product Development

PārZ4014, Sensory Evaluation of Food Products

PārZ4060, Food Additives

Course abstract

The aim of the study course is to deepen the knowledge about the chemical composition, properties and quality of grain, to learn the basics of grain processing technology and the introduction of innovations, to understand the physical, biochemical and microbiological processes that take place during production. Gain knowledge of flour, groats, pasta and bread quality assessment methods and safety. To get acquainted with the special equipment used in food production, their structure and operating principles. In the laboratory work students acquire practical skills in quality control of grain, flour and other raw materials and in the development of bread and special products.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

1. Knowledge - knowledgeable about the raw materials of grain processing and bread production, the basic principles of product technology process and special knowledge of processes, quality assurance and control - 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th test.
2. Able to explain the most important terms about grain processing products, their properties, quality management - 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th test and workshops.
3. Skills to perform quality assessment of raw materials and products, necessary calculations, perform research work, describe the quality monitoring of grain processing products - laboratory works.

4. Competence to independently obtain, select and analyze information on the impact of individual raw materials on product quality, take part in the development and evaluation of new products - laboratory works and workshops.

Course Content(Calendar)

Course plan Technology - T, Technological Equipment - Te, Packaging - Pa, Sensory Evaluation - Se, Quality Management - Q
Lecture L. Cereals their characteristics. Types of grain, chemical composition - carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, their properties, vitamins, minerals, pigments, water. Grain mass and its physical properties. Life processes in grain. Grain receiving and pre - treatment equipment. Quality management in the grain processing industry. (4h - T) (4h - Te) (4h - Q)
Laboratory work LW. Analysis of physical properties of grains (moisture, falling number, amount of gluten, sedimentation value). Determination of grain quality indicators (grain impurities, bulk density, determination of absolute grain mass, glassiness grain, grain germination capacity and germination density) (6h-T)
Workshop W Development opportunities of grain processing. (1h - T)
L. Flour production. Manufacture of groats, couscous, semolina and flakes. Flour, groats and flakes production equipment and lines. Sensory evaluation of cereal products. (2h - T) (2h - Te) (2h - Se)
LW. Preparation of flour, flakes, muesli. Flour quality analysis (determination of ash, acidity, gluten quantity and quality). Evaluation of the quality of groats and flakes. Sensory evaluation of flakes and muesli. (4h - T) (2h - Te) (2h - Se)
W. Newest trends of flour, groats and flakes production. (1h - T).
L. Characteristics of pasta. Technological process of pasta production. Pasta production equipment. (4h - T) (4h - Te)
LW. Pasta production. Pasta quality assessment. Sensory evaluation of pasta. Packaging of flour and flakes and pasta. (4h - Te) (2h - Se) (2h - Pa)
W. Actualities of pasta production in a production company. (4h - T)
Test 1 Grain processing and pasta technology, equipment and quality.
L. Description of the bread industry. Raw materials used in bread production, their characteristics and quality requirements. Sourdough and their role in bread production. Sensory evaluation for bakery products. (4h - T) (4h - Se)
LW. Evaluation of raw material quality. Sourdough preparation and quality assessment. Development dynamics and identification of microorganisms in sourdough. (10h - T)
W. Quality management solutions in a bakery. (6h - T)
L. Kneading of wheat dough. Dough fermentation and biotechnology processes during the fermentation time. Wheat dough processing (division, rounding, pre-growing, shaping, post-monitoring), post-monitoring, baking. Equipment: kneaders, dividers, shapers, ovens, refrigeration equipment - for wheat bread production. (4h - T) (4h - Te)
LW. Wheat bread control baking. Quality assessment of wheat bread. Wheat bread packaging. (2h - T) (2h - Te) (2h - Se) (2h - Pa)
W. Wheat bread making possibilities and solutions, work in groups. (2h - T)
Test 2 Wheat bread technology, equipment and quality.
L. Types of rye dough preparation. Rye dough division, formation, fermentation. Rye bread baking. (4h - T)
LW. Rye bread control baking. Preparation and quality assessment of scald and sourdough. Rye dough preparation and bread baking. Rye bread quality assessment - sensory, phys. chem. and microbiological analyzes. Rye bread packaging and pasteurization. (12h - T) (2h - Se) (2h - Pa)
W. Rye bread technological solutions for extension of sales time. (2h - T)
Test 3 Rye bread technology, equipment and quality.
L. Quality management in bread production. (4h - Q)
LW. Bread sensory evaluation for quality assurance. (2h - Se)
S. Quality management in the bread industry (2h - Q)
Test 4 Quality management in the grain processing industry.

W. Discussion seminar on the development trends of bread production cooperation with production representatives. (2h - T)

Requirements for awarding credit points

All 4 tests must be marked.
All laboratory work must be performed.
Participation in all seminars and discussions.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Individual work in compiling, analyzing and preparing laboratory work protocols. Preparation for seminars based on getting acquainted with the latest industry publicity materials. As well as preparation for 4 tests.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

A student receives a successful mark in the test if at least 50% of the questions are answered correctly.
After the development of laboratory work, one must be able to explain the obtained results.
Students with an average mark of at least 6 in the tests are calculated as the arithmetic mean of the 4 marks in the tests.

Compulsory reading

1. Kunkulberga D., Segliņš V. Maizes ražošanas tehnoloģija; Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte. Rīga: RTU izdevniecība, 2010. ISBN 9789984322339
2. Ауэрман, Л. Я. Технология хлебопекарного производства; 9-е изд., перераб. и доп. Москва : Пищевая промышленность, 2005. 416 c.
3. Segliņš V., Kunkulberga D. Miltu konditorejas izstrādājumu ražošana. Rīga: RTU izdevniecība, 2013, 272 lpp
4. Handbook of cereal science and technology / edited by Karel Kulp, Joseph G. Ponte, Jr. New York :Basel : Marcel Dekker, 2000. IX, 790 p. : ill. Food science and technology ; 99 . ISBN 0824782941
5. Augkopība. Ruža A. red. Jelgava: Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte, 2004. 374 lpp. ISBN 9984596729

6. Breadmaking : improving quality / edited by Stanley P. Cauvain. 2nd ed. Cambridge ;Philadelphia, PA : Woodhead Pub., 2012. xxviii, 802 lpp. : il., tab., diagr. ; 24 cm. Woodhead publishing series in food science, technology and nutrition ; no. 229 . ISBN 9780857090607

Further reading

1. Wheat: Production, properties and quality / edited by W.Bushuk and V.F.Rasper. London etc.: Blackie Academic and Professional, 1996. XV, 239 p.: ill. , tab. ISBN 0751401811.
2. Frozen and Refrigerated Doughs and Batters. /Ed. Kulp K., Lorenz K., Brummer J. – American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. St. Paul, Minesota, USA, 1998. – 280 p.
3. Sluimer P. Principles of Breadmaking. American Association of Cereal Chemists Inc. St. Paul, Minnesota,USA, 2005. – 212 p.
4. Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition. Editor-in-chief B.Caballero; L.C.Trugo editors , P.M. Finglas 2nd ed. Amsterdam, etc.: Academic Press, 2003. 10 vol. ISBN 012227055X.
5. Khalil Khan, Wheat Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, 4th Edition , St.Paul, Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists 2009 eBook ISBN: 9780128104545
6. Peter R Shewry Steven E Ullrich, Barley: Chemistry and Technology, St.Paul, Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists, 2016 eBook ISBN: 9780128123690
7. Francis Webster Oats: Chemistry and Technology 2nd Edition, St.Paul, Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists 2011 eBook ISBN: 9780128104521
8. Kaisa Poutanen Per Åman Rye and Health 1st Edition, St.Paul, Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists 2016 eBook ISBN: 9780128122884
9. Weibiao Zhou, Y. H. Hui Bakery Products Science and Technology, 2nd Edition , John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2014 ISBN: 978-1-118-79207-0 Online ISBN:9781118792001
10. Hamaker B. R. Technology of Functional Cereal Products 1st Edition, Woodhead Publishing, 2007, 568p. Hardcover ISBN: 9781845691776 eBook ISBN: 9781845693886

11. Wang, Jing, Sun, Baoguo, Cao, RongTsao (Eds.)Bioactive Factors and Processing Technology for Cereal Foods, Springer Singapore, 2019, 259p. ISBN 978-981-13-6167-8 eBook ISBN 978-981-13-6167-8

Periodicals and other sources

1. Datu bāzes,,
2. AS Rīgas dzirnavnieks
3. AS Dobeles dzirnavnieks
4. Latvijas maiznieku biedrība
5. Ltd Buhler group
6. Ltd Puratos


Compulsory course in the academic bachelor's programm "Food Quality and Innovations".