Course code PārZ3015

Credit points 5.25

Grain, Grain Processing I

Total Hours in Course140

Number of hours for lectures24

Number of hours for laboratory classes32

Independent study hours84

Date of course confirmation13.04.2021

Responsible UnitInstitute of Food

Course developers

author Pārtikas institūts

Dace Kļava

Dr. sc. ing.


Daiga Kunkulberga

Dr. sc. ing.

Prior knowledge

Ķīmi4005, Biochemistry

PārZ1003, Biology of Raw Materials of Food

PārZ3008, Food Engineering and Equipment II

PārZ3011, Microbiology II

Z003596, Organiskā ķīmija II

Replaced course

PārZB007 [GPARB007] Grain, Grain Processing I

Course abstract

Students acquire knowledge on grain chemical composition, properties and evaluation criteria. Obtain the basics of grain processing products and bread production, physical, biochemical and microbiological processes during production. Acquire knowledge about the causes of various product defects and prevention options. In the laboratory work students acquire practical skills in quality control of grain, flour and other raw materials and in the production of bread and special products.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knowledge and understanding of the chemical composition of grains, their properties, technological processes and quality of grain processing products and bread production. Is able to explain the most important concepts and regularities of the grain processing industry - lectures, 1 .; 2 .; 3. 4. test.
Skills to know and use quality assessment methods in the grain processing process and bread production. To perform the necessary calculations to ensure the bread production process and to work independently or in a work group, performing bread control biscuits - independent work, 8 laboratory works.

Competence to be able to creatively and independently organize the technological process of grain processing products and bread production. Ability to orientate and know the raw materials used in the grain processing industry, to analyze the trends of technological process improvement and development. Ability to develop constructive food solutions and make the necessary adjustments in the technological process - laboratory work and independent work.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Division of cereals, their classification, chemical composition and using in the food industry. (Lecture - 2h)
2. Cereal quality and technological properties. Life processes in grains. Grain weight and its physical properties. (Lecture - 2h) Determination of grain quality parameters (grain impurities, bulk density, determination of 1000 grain weight, grain germination capacity and germination density). (Laboratory work - 4h). Analysis of physical properties of grain - Latvian Grain Network - a complex administrative-technical solution for grain quality assessment, falling number, gluten, moisture (Laboratory work - 4h). Test 1.
3. Cereal processing, characteristics and technological process of groats, flakes and flour. (Lecture - 3h) Preparation of flakes and flour mixtures and evaluation of quality assessment. (Laboratory work - 4h)
4. Types of flour, flour quality and baking properties, flour storage. (Lecture - 2h) Evaluation of flour quality (determination of ash, acidity, amount and quality of gluten, amylogram. (Laboratory work - 4h). Test 2.
5. Bakery industry characteristics. Bread and types of bakery products. (Lecture - 2h)
6. Bread production raw ingredients, their characteristics. Bread improvers, significance, composition, properties. (Lecture - 2h)
7. Bread sourdough, their types, meaning and technological process. The importance of acidity on sourdough preparation. (Lecture - 2h) Bread sourdough preparation and quality evaluation. (Laboratory work - 4h)
8. Types of wheat dough preparation, their difference and uses. Mixing of wheat dough. Dough fermentation, processes during the fermentation time. Wheat dough processing (division, rounding, pre-fermentation, formation, fermentation) Baking of wheat dough bread. Processes during the baking time. Bread cooling. Frozen technologies in bread making. (Lecture - 4h) Test 3.
9. Wheat bread control baking. Equipment: mixers, dividers, formation machine, ovens. Various raw materials and dough preparation impacts on bread quality (laboratory work - 4h). (Laboratory work - 4h).
10. Types of rye bread, their characteristics. Differences in rye dough preparation. Scalding, its impact on rye bread technology process. Acidity regulators. Rye dough division, formation, fermentation. Rye bread baking. (Lecture - 3h) Rye bread - preparation of sourdough and scalds, dough mixing, baking. Baking rye-wheat bread. (Laboratory work - 4h) Test 4.
11. Wheat and rye bread quality parameters. Quality assessment of bakery products. Defects and their elimination. Evaluation of the reason of defects. (Lecture - 2h) Bread quality assessment and defect analysis. (Laboratory work - 2h).

12. Defense of independent work (Laboratory work - 2h).

Requirements for awarding credit points

Test with a mark is obtained if:
• 8 laboratory works have been worked on and defended;
• developed and defended independent work;

• successfully (at least 4 points) written four tests.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

The student independently develops his own bread recipe, describes the cooking technology, performs nutrient calculations, practically bakes and evaluates bread samples in the laboratory. The results of the independent work are summarized and described - in the form of a Word document (up to 15 pages) and a presentation is prepared (up to 10 slides).

Preparation for the defense of 8 laboratory works and four tests.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The evaluation of the study course depends on the cumulative evaluation of tests, laboratory work and independent work.
A student with a successful grade on the test can get it if at least 50% of the questions are answered and explained correctly.

The test mark is calculated as the arithmetic mean of the marks of the tests, defended laboratory and independent works taken in the study course.

Compulsory reading

1.Kunkulberga D., Segliņš V. Maizes ražošanas tehnoloģija. Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte. Rīga: RTU izdevniecība, 2010. 289 lpp. ISBN 9789984322339
2. Ауэрман Л. Я. Технология хлебопекарного производства. 9-е изд., перераб. и доп. Москва: Пищевая промышленность, 2003. 416 c.
3. Handbook of cereal science and technology / edited by Karel Kulp, Joseph G. Ponte, Jr. New York :Basel : Marcel Dekker, 2000. IX, 790 p. : ill. Food science and technology ; 99 . ISBN 0824782941
4.Augkopība. Ruža A. red. Jelgava: Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte, 2004. 374 lpp. ISBN 9984596729
5.Breadmaking : improving quality / edited by Stanley P. Cauvain. 2nd ed. Cambridge ;Philadelphia, PA : Woodhead Pub., 2012. xxviii, 802 lpp. : il., tab., diagr. ; 24 cm. Woodhead publishing series in food science, technology and nutrition ; no. 229 . ISBN 9780857090607

Further reading

1. Kunkulberga D., Ruža A. Kviešu un rudzu graudu uzturvērtība un izmantošana maizes ražošanā. Jelgava: Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte, 2008. 55 lpp. ISBN 9789984784380.
2. Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition. Editor-in-chief B.Caballero; L.C.Trugo editors , P.M. Finglas 2nd ed. Amsterdam, etc.: Academic Press, 2003. 10 vol. ISBN 012227055X.
3. Frozen and Refrigerated Doughs and Batters. Edited by K.Kulp, K.Lorenz, J. Bruemmer. St.Paul, Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists, 1995. 280 p. ISBN 0913250880
4. Khalil Khan, Wheat Wheat: Chemistry and Technology, 4th Edition , St.Paul, Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists 2009
eBook ISBN: 9780128104545
5. Peter R Shewry Steven E Ullrich, Barley: Chemistry and Technology, St.Paul, Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists, 2016
eBook ISBN: 9780128123690
6. Francis Webster Oats: Chemistry and Technology
2nd Edition, St.Paul, Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists 2011
eBook ISBN: 9780128104521
7. Kaisa Poutanen Per Åman Rye and Health
1st Edition, St.Paul, Minnesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists 2016
eBook ISBN: 9780128122884
8. Weibiao Zhou, Y. H. Hui Bakery Products Science and Technology, 2nd Edition , John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2014
ISBN: 978-1-118-79207-0
Online ISBN:9781118792001
9. B R Hamaker Technology of Functional Cereal Products 1st Edition, Woodhead Publishing, 2007, 568p.
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845691776
eBook ISBN: 9781845693886
10. Wang, Jing, Sun, Baoguo, Cao, RongTsao (Eds.)Bioactive Factors and Processing Technology for Cereal Foods, Springer Singapore, 2019, 259p.
ISBN 978-981-13-6167-8
eBook ISBN 978-981-13-6167-8

Periodicals and other sources

1. AS Rīgas dzirnavnieks
2. AS Dobeles dzirnavnieks
3. Latvijas maiznieku biedrība
4. Ltd Buhler group
5. Ltd Puratos


Compulsory course for full-time and part-time students of the second level professional higher education study program “Food Product Technology”.