Course code PārZ1003

Credit points 2

Biology of Raw Materials of Food

Total Hours in Course80

Number of hours for lectures8

Number of hours for laboratory classes24

Independent study hours48

Date of course confirmation13.04.2021

Responsible UnitDepartment of Food Technology

Course developers

author Pārtikas tehnoloģijas katedra

Dace Kļava

Dr. sc. ing.

author Pārtikas tehnoloģijas katedra

Līga Skudra

Dr. sc. ing.

Course abstract

Aim of the study course Biology of Raw Materials of Food is to provide knowledge about food raw materials, their structure and chemical composition. From the biological science point of view, they study the structure of cells and tissues of plants and animals, their interrelationships and differences, the process of metabolic processes in the cell and their determining role in quality assurance. The study course investigates the structural elements and structure of raw materials using microscopy and histology techniques. Evaluated quality parameters of raw materials of food and analysed their importance in product development.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knowledge understands the structure, texture and properties of food characteristics and their regularities (4 tests).
Students are able to evaluate the structure, texture and properties of food raw materials according to their quality requirements, to explain the results obtained and to discuss them reasonably (8 laboratory works).
Competence - is able to independently acquire, select and analyse information on the texture and structure of food raw materials, to use it in further scientific research work (8 laboratory works and 6 independent works and seminars).

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Division of food raw materials. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell structure and structural element function (Lecture – 1h).
2. Microscope design, preparation methodology for microscopy. Structure of prokaryotic cell and plant cells and evaluation of structural elements (Laboratory work – 3h).
3. Role of prokaryotes in food raw material processing (Lecture – 1h).
4. Microscopy and detection of plant tissues (dermal, ground, vascular, mechanical and meristematic tissue) in different samples of food raw materials (Laboratory work – 3h). Plant and animal tissue characterization (Test 1).
5. Chemical composition of products, metabolic processes in the organisms, characterization of digestive system (Lecture - 2h).
6. Getting to knowladges about structural elements (protein, fat, carbohydrate) of nutrients use microscopy methods (Laboratory work – 2h).
7. Analysis of nutrients composition of food raw materials and discussion of their role in metabolic processes and digestive system. (Independent work - discussion seminar – 1h). Chemical composition of the products, metabolic processes in the organisms and digestive system (Test 2).
8. Biological characterization of vegetable raw materials (fruits, berries, roots, stem modifications, cereals, seeds) - cell differences, tissue characterization and their role in quality assurance (Lecture - 2h).
9. Organoleptic evaluation of fruits and berries, study of structural elements and microstructure. Evaluation and analysis of the obtained results (Laboratory work – 2h).
10. Stem modifications (potato) - organoleptic evaluation, structural and microstructure microscopy studies. Evaluation and analysis of the obtained results (Laboratory work – 2h). Trends and opportunities of application of the branch (Independent work - discussion seminar - 1h).
11. Organoleptic evaluation of cereals, investigation of structural elements and microstructure, their differences using microscopy methods (Laboratory work – 2h). Evaluation of cereal application and development trends. Discussion about potato processing and suitability of evaluated varieties (Independent work - discussion seminar – 1h).
12. Discussion seminar on the development trends of the cereal industry and differences in cereals and their application in food production (Independent work - discussion seminar – 1h). Quality requirements of food raw materials (organoleptic, physico-chemical, microbiological parameters), their application in processing and tendencies of fruit, vegetable industry (Test 3).
13. Chemical composition of animal raw materials (milk, meat, fish, eggs) and characterization of structural elements, their role in quality assurance (Lecture - 2h).
14. Organoleptic evaluation and analysis of milk structural element as a raw material (Laboratory work – 2h).
15. Microstructure of meat or fish muscle tissue using histology methods, identification of differences and analysis of obtained results (Laboratory work – 2h). Evaluation of the obtained results and discussion on the development trends of the sector (Independent work - discussion seminar – 1h).

16. Discussion of trends in the meat and fish processing industry (Independent work - discussion seminar – 1h). Quality requirements (organoleptic, physico-chemical, microbiological parameters) of animal raw materials (milk, meat, fish, eggs), their use in processing and trends in the development of the industry sector (Test 4).

Requirements for awarding credit points

Written for examinations. Exam task consists of:
• Test (30 questions) on theoretical knowledge acquired during the course.
• Practical assignment on the topics acquired during the course laboratory work.
During the semester students have to pass 4 tests, prepare and defend 8 protocols on laboratory work and 6 independent works and presentations. All assignment should have a positive evaluations.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

. Individual work with research elements on analysis, justification and conclusions of the results obtained in 8 laboratory works.
2. Independent work is a team work of 3-4 students whose aim is to deepen theoretical knowledge about the trends of food processing industry, quality requirements of raw materials and their application. 6 presentations (maximum 5 slides) developed by the student team and used in discussion seminars.
3. Individual independent theoretical studies for in-depth study of control work topics.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The assessment of the study course examination depends on the cumulative assessment of the study course tests, laboratory work, independent work and seminars.
The student will be awarded a pass mark on the test if at least 50% of the test questions are answered correctly. Each test grade must be 7 (good) to obtain a cumulative grade at the end of the semester. 70% of the total score.
The laboratory work developed is counted if the student has prepared the protocol according to the requirements and is able to explain and justify the obtained results. 10% of the total score.
Independent work and participation in seminars are evaluated on a scale from excellent to almost satisfactory. 20% of the total score.
The exam grade is calculated as the arithmetic average of the grades obtained in the course, taking into account the importance of the total score.

Compulsory reading

1. Nagle, Erika, Bioloģija vidusskolai : mācību grāmata / Erika Nagle. 1. izd. Lielvārde : Lielvārds, 2008. 392 lpp. : il. ; 25 cm. ISBN 9789984112725.
2. Mader, Sylvia S. Bioloģija : eksperimentāla mācību grāmata / Silvija S. Madera ; [no angļu valodas tulkojuši: I. Kabucis ... [u.c.]]. Rīga : Zvaigzne ABC, [2001] 3 sēj.: il., tab. ; 28 cm. ISBN 9984177947.
3. Dālmane, Aina, Histoloģija / A. Dālmane, O. Koroļeva. Rīga : Zvaigzne, 1990. 486, [1] lpp. : il. ; 22 cm. ISBN 5405002925
4. Starr, Cecie. Biology : concepts and applications / Cecie Starr, Christine A. Evers, Lisa Starr. 9th Ed. Stamford : Cengage Learning, ©2015. xxvi, 797, [56] lpp. : krās. il., diagr. ; 28 cm. ISBN 9781285427812 (student edition).
5. Raven, Peter H., Biology of plants / Raven, Ray F. Evert, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Susan E. Eichhorn, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Eighth edition. New York, NY : W.H. Freeman and Company Publishers, [2013], ©2013. xvii, 727, [114] lpp. : il. (pārsvarā krās.) ; 29 cm. ISBN 9781429219617 (international edition).
6. Brūvere, Līvija Pārtikas produktu prečzinība / Livija Brūvere. Pārstrādāts un papildināts izd. Rīga : Turība, 2006. 2 sēj. : il. ; 20 cm. Viesmīlības un tūrisma bibliotēka 17-18 . ISBN 9984766829 (1).

7. Food microstructure and its relationship with quality and stability / edited by Sakamon Devahastin. Duxford, United Kingdom : Woodhead Publishing, [2017] xii, 283 lpp. : ilustrācijas, tabulas ; 24 cm. Woodhead Publishing series in food science, technology and nutrition . ISBN 9780081007648.

Further reading

1. Li, Thomas S. C. Vegetables and fruits [elektroniskais resurss] : nutritional and therapeutic values / Thomas S.C. Li. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press, c2008. ix, 286 p. Grāmata izdota arī iespiestā veidā. ISBN 9781420068733 (e-book : PDF).
2. Kunkulberga, Daiga, Maizes ražošana / Daiga Kunkulberga, Valdis Segliņš ; [recenzentes: Ruta Galoburda, Evita Straumīte ; redaktors Oskars Lapsiņš ; vāka autore un dizains: Baiba Lazdiņa]. Daugavpils : Daugavpils Universitātes Akadēmiskais apgāds "Saule", 2015. 288 lpp. : diagr., il., tab. ; 25 cm. ISBN 9789984147253.
3. Ozola, Lilita, Piena pārstrādes tehnoloģija : [mācību grāmata] / Lilita Ozola, Inga Ciproviča. Jelgava : LLU, Pārtikas tehnoloģijas fakultāte, 2002. 247, [1] lpp. : il. ; 22 cm. ISBN 9984596370.
4. Milk processing and quality management / edited by Adnan Y. Tamime. Chichester, West Sussex, UK ;Malden, MA : Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. xviii, 324 lpp. : il., tab. ; 25 cm. Society of Dairy Technology series . ISBN 9781405145305 (hardback : alk. paper)

5. Feiner, Gerhard. Meat products handbook : practical science and technology / Gerhard Feiner. Cambridge : Woodhead Publishing ;Boca Raton etc. : CRC Press, c2006. XXII, 648 lpp. : il., tab. ; 24 cm. Woodhead Publishing in food science, technology and nutrition . ISBN 9781845690502(Woodhead Publishing).

Periodicals and other sources

1.Journal of Food Science and Toxicology / Food Biology,
2. Food Bioscience,
3. Functional Foods: Bioactivity, Bioavailability, and Biological Characteristics,


Compulsory study course in the academic bachelor's program "Food Quality and Innovations" and professional study program "Food Technology".