Course code LauZ4002

Credit points 6

Crop Production II

Total Hours in Course162

Number of hours for lectures32

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes6

Number of hours for laboratory classes26

Independent study hours98

Date of course confirmation21.03.2023

Responsible UnitInstitute of Soil and Plant Science

Course developers

author prof.

Zinta Gaile

Dr. agr.

author lect.

Madara Misule

Mg. agr.

Prior knowledge

LauZ3139, Soil Fertility and Fertilizers

LauZ4219, Crop Production I

LauZ4228, Crop Protection

Course abstract

Students acquire knowledge on importance, distribution, morphological and biological characteristics, agro-ecological demands, and peculiarities of growing and development of crops included into several field crops’ groups: tuberous, leguminous and fibre plants, root, oil and essential oil crops; their agricultural practices and evaluation of yield quality. Students study also seed quality and seed production of crops included into mentioned groups.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Examination (the type of examination (oral / written) is agreed upon at the beginning of the semester). The exam is awarded if all the tests and independent work have been successfully passed in the study course, as well as laboratory works have been passed.

After completing the course student will have:
• knowledge – on plants’ morphology, agro-ecological demands, crop management, yield quality and seed production of crops included into following crop groups: tuberous, leguminous and fibre plants, root, oil and essential oil crops;
• skills – to evaluate role of agro-ecological factors on yield formation of crops included into study course; to identify crops, their cultivars and seeds, to detect seed and crop yield quality parameters and to use them; to choose crop management operations and to draw up crop management plan for all the plants included into mentioned crop groups;
• competence – to organize crop production, harvesting, first stage processing, storage and sale, to choose suitable cultivars, to manage seed production of plants included into mentioned crop groups; to study scientific literature and to carry out further self-education on topics included into the study course.

Knowledge, skills and competences during the study course are assessed three written tests and two independent works with oral presentation, as well as completing all laboratory work.

Course Content(Calendar)

Lectures (38 h)
1.Legumes for seeds (10 h), plant species (peas, beans, vetches, lupine, soy), growing areas in the world, Europe and Latvia, botanical and morphological characteristics of plants. Directions of use, types of products. Edible pulses and green plants. Chemical composition of seeds and green mass, morphological characteristics of plants, agroecological requirements, growth and development. Yield formation and its components. Legume seeds, their morphological features and anatomical structure. Economic and agro-technical importance of species, sown areas and productivity, botanical characteristics.
2.Fibers and oil plants (12 h), breakdown, botanical species, genera and species. Economic and agro-technical importance, directions of use, types of products to be obtained. Sown areas, productivity and production in the world, Europe and Latvia. Agricultural machinery for cultivation. Species to be learned - flax, rape and turnip rape, hemp, essential oil plants
3.Tuberous plants (6 h). Characteristics of tubers. Potatoes as one of the most important field crops in temperate climates. Volumes, area, yields of potato cultivation. Chemical composition of tubers, uses and quality. Botanical characteristics, growth and development of potatoes. Ecological requirements, cultivation and agricultural technologies, tuber storage. Jerusalem artichoke – economic importance, use and cultivation. Morphological and biological characteristics. Basic principles of growing technology.
4.Root crops – sugar beets (2 h). The role of sugar beet in world sugar production. Usefulness of beet in the economy and possibilities of its use. Botanical characteristics, growth and development. Ecological characteristics, cultivation techniques and harvesting, roots storage. Quality characteristics of sugar beet roots, sugar yield and marketing rules. The nutritional value of beet leaves. By-products of the sugar industry and its uses.
5.Brassicaceae species plants for green biomass (2 h).

Practical works (6 h).
Preparation of the technological plan of field crop cultivation (6 h) - selection of suitable agrotechnology for a certain crop level for a particular crop and place of cultivation - soil characterization, soil tillage type, basic fertilizers, sowing, plant protection plan during the vegetation period. Management of field crop data using the programs available on the market.

Laboratory works (26)
1. Morphological characteristics of potatoes. Anatomical structure of tubers, morphological characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke. Evaluation of potato yield (fraction content, starch and dry matter determination) - 2 h.
2. Characteristics of potato varieties, determination of taste properties - 2 h.
3. Determination of quality of seed potato, calculation of planting norms - 2 h.
4. Morphological differences of root crops (seeds, seedlings, roots) - 2 h.
5. Determination of beet seed germination - 2 h.
6. Characterization and determination of annual legumes (peas, beans, lupins, etc.) seeds, fruits, stems, leaves and inflorescences - 2 h.
7. Identification of annual legume varieties and characteristics of the varieties - 3 h.
8. Determination of quality of annual legume seeds - 2 h.
9. Morphological characteristics of oil plants; plant and seed recognition and determination - 2 h.
10. Determination of Brassica napus subsp. oleifera and Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera seed quality indicators - 2 h.
11. Morphological characteristics of flax, main features of varieties - 2 h.
12. Morphological and anatomical analysis of flax stems; structure of flax seed, determination of seed quality - 3 h.

13. Morphological characteristics of plants grown for fiber production - cotton, jute, hemp, etc. - 2 h.

Requirements for awarding credit points

Examination (the type of examination (oral / written) is agreed upon at the beginning of the semester). The exam is awarded if all the tests and independent work have been successfully passed in the study course, as well as laboratory works have been passed.

All intended laboratory works are developed and defended, 5 tests / individual works are written.
Test / individual work topics
1. Legumes for seeds
2. Tuberous plants an root crops
3. Fibers and oil plants
4. Crop growth and development (oral presentation)
5. Technological plan for field crop production (individual or group work with presentation)

The final mark is accumulating according to the results of the semester: if the total points for tests / independent work are 50 points – accumulative final mark is –10 (excellent); accumulative final mark can be obtained if 35 – 50 (35 - 39 = 7, 40 - 45 = 8, 46 - 49 = 9) points are gain. If the total points are lower, the student must take an assessment examination.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Independent work includes literature studies, preparation for tests and seminars, independent problem solving; preparation of a technological plan for a definite harvest. Independent processing and formation of laboratory results.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Tests done during the study course are graded on a 10-ball scale, which is equal to the point at which the cumulative grade is calculated. The marks obtained during the semester can be accumulated in the final mark if it is at least 35 points (7 balls) or higher. At the end of the course students take the exam. Students get an exam mark if they have successfully passed all the tests and independent work.

Compulsory reading

1. Augkopība (2004). A. Ružas red. Jelgava: LLU. 374 lpp.
2. Augkopība: Rokasgrāmata (2001). A. Ružas red. Jelgava: LLU. 324 lpp.
3. Augkopības praktikums (1980). P. Freimanis, I. Holms, J. Jurševskis, J. Lauva, A. Ruža. Rīga: Zvaigzne. 325 lpp.
4. Balodis O., Bankina B., Gaile Z., Grantiņa I. (2012). Ziemas rapsis. Jelgava, LLU, 68 lpp.
5. Freimanis P., Holms I., Lauva J. (1982). Lopbarības ražošana tīrumos. Rīga: Zvaigzne. 310 lpp.
6. Gaile Z., Bartuševics J. (2012). Kukurūzas audzēšana un izmantošana. Jelgava: LLU. 40 lpp.
7. Handbuch des Pflanzenbaues 1. Grundlagen der Landwirtschaft lichen Pflanzenproduktion (1997). Keller E.R., Hanus H., Heyland K.U.. Verlag Engen Ulmer, 860 s.
8. Jurševskis L., Holms I., Freimanis P. (1988). Augkopība. Rīga: Zvaigzne. 569 lpp.
9. Kartupeļu audzēšana (1993). Gustavson N. (red), tulk. no zviedru val., Miglavs U. (red.). Umeå: Förlag. 80 lpp.

10. Martin J.D., Leonard W.H., Stamp D.L., Waldren R.P. (2006). Principles of Field Crop Production, 4th Edition. Canada: Pearson. 976

Further reading

1. Copeland L.O., McDonald M.B. (1995). Principles of Seed Science and Technology. 3rd Edition. USA: Chapman & Hall. 409 p.
2. Fageria N.K. (2013). The Role of Plant Roots in Crop Production USA. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.
3. Fageri N.K., Baligar V.C., Jones C.A. (2010). Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. Third Edition. USA: CRC Press
4. Ivanovs S., Stramkale V. (2001). Linu audzēšanas un novākšanas tehnoloģija. Rīga: AS Poligrāfists. 191 lpp.
5. Keller E.R., Hanus H., Heyland K.U. (1997). Handbuch des Pflancenbaues 3. Knollen - und Wurizelfrüchte, Körner - und Futterleguminosen. Berlin: Verlag Eugen Ulmer. 828 s.
6. The Potato Crop. Second Edition (1992). Harris P. (ed.) London: Chapman & Hall. 909 p.
7. Агрономия (2001). Под редакцией В.Д. Мухи. Москва: Колос, 504 с.
8. Милащенко Н.З., Абрамов В.Ф. Технология выращивания и использования рапса и сурепицы. Москва: Агропромиздат. 223 с.
9. Петров В.А., Зубенко В.Ф. (1991). Свекловодство. Москва: Агропромиздат. 191 c.
10. Полуденный Л.В., Сотник В.Ф., Хланцев Е.Е. (1997). Эфиромасличные и лекарственные растения. Москва: Лшлос. 286 с.
11. Рапс и сурепица (2007). Шпаар Д. (ред.) Москва: ИДООО DLV Агродело. 320 c.

12. Соловьев А.Я. (1989) Льноводство. Москва: Агропромиздат. 319 c.

Periodicals and other sources

Žurnāli un zinātnisko rakstu krājumi: Rural Sustainability Research, Research for Rural Development, Agronomy Research, Žemdirbyste=Agriculture, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Sec. B Soil and Plant Science, Proceedings of The Latvia Academy on Sciences, section B.