Course code LauZ3153

Credit points 6


Total Hours in Course162

Number of hours for lectures32

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes32

Independent study hours98

Date of course confirmation05.02.2019

Responsible UnitInstitute of Animal Science

Course developer

author prof.

Daina Jonkus

Dr. agr.

Prior knowledge

Biol1010, Zoology

Ķīmi1012, Chemistry

Vete2022, Animal Physiology

Course abstract

Students get acquainted with heredity and variation in different global levels of organization - molecular, cellular, characteristics of individuals and populations. Gain insight into the functioning of the gene, its regulation and possibilities of interaction with the external environment. Course of study provides knowledge of the principles of quantitative and molecular genetics for use in livestock breeding. The genetics is a theoretical base for animal breeding and selection.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

After completing the course student will have:
•knowledge about the basic laws of the genetics, molecular structure, function and regulation of genes, its interaction with the environment, affecting the animal characteristics; the realization of genetic information from generation to generation; the factors altering the hereditary information and how it affects the animal characteristics; the gene variation, distribution and change in populations, molecular study of local endangered animal breeds (successfully passed theoretical and practical tests and exam).
•skills to explain the mechanisms of genetic inheritance and variation in molecular, cellular, trait, individual and population levels; find and analyse the information of associative gene, causative mutation and inheritance pattern of hereditary traits and disorders in farm animals (practical work results, conclusions and explanations).
•competences to use the acquired knowledge in practical works, associate with other agricultural branches and use them in the theoretical course of Animal Breeding (successfully passed theoretical and practical tests and exam, prepared and presented report about genes determining animal traits, influence of mutations to productivity traits).

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Inheritance and variation. Study object of genetics, model organisms, methods, basic terms and practical use of genetics. History of Genetic research. Lectures 3h, practical works 1h.
2. Cytological basis of inheritance. Cell cycle. Mitosis and meiosis. Causes of genetic variation. Karyotypes of productive animals. Lectures 2h, practical works 2h.
3. Principles of hybridological analysis. Mendel’s laws of inheritance. Interaction between alleles of one gene. Lectures 1h, practical works 3h.
1. practical test: Mendelian inheritance, mono – dihybrid crosses. 2h.
4. Molecular basis of inheritance. Structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), replication. Gene expression, its regulation. Lectures 4h, practical works 2h.
5. Mitochondrial DNA. Principles of mitochondrial inheritance. Modelling of Protein synthesis in the cell. Information analysis of genes determining animal traits. Lectures 4h, practical works 1h.
1. Theoretical test: Cytological and molecular basis of inheritance. Terminology. 1h.
6. Interaction of non-allelic genes. Complementation, epistasis, polymery, modifications. Inheritance of basic coat colours in mammals. Lectures 3h, practical works 3h.
7. Genetics of the sex determination. Sex chromosome abnormalities. Inheritance of sex-linked, sex-
influenced and sex-limited traits. Lectures 2h, practical works 2h. 2. practical test: basic principles of inheritance of traits determined by non-allelic genes and sex-related genes. 2 h
8. Gene linkage. Crossing-over, its types and frequency. Basic thesis of chromosomal theory of inheritance. Lectures 2h, practical works 2h.
9. Inheritable and non-inheritable variation. Classification of mutations. Mutations of genes, chromosomes, genomes, its characterization. Lectures 2h, practical works 2h.
2. theoretical test: Inheritance principles of sex-determined traits. Classification of mutations. Chromosomal basis of inheritance. 1h.
10. Mutations, its significance in variation diversity of animal traits. 1. Presentation of independent work. 2h.
11. Population genetics. Hardy-Weinberg law. Factors and processes influencing population’s genetic structure. Lectures 2h, practical works 2h.
12. Analysis of population genetic structure. Influence of selection to changes of genetic structure of population. Lectures 2h, practical works 2h.
3. practical test: Principles of gene pool analysis. 2h.
13. Basic principles of genome selection, its use in selection of farm animals. Lectures 2h, practical works 2h. 2. Presentation of independent work. 2h.

Requirements for awarding credit points

Lecture attendance is recommended, practical work attendance – mandatory.
All practical works have to be worked out and credited.
Prepared and presented two reports (public presentations).
Two theoretical and three practical tests successfully passed.
Written exam on theoretical subject of the study course.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Independent literature studies.
Students have to prepare and present two reports. Preparation to the tests, consultations with the lecturer on lecture and practical work themes if necessary.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The final assessment of learning outcomes consists of 20% of practical work tests’ average result, 15% of the theoretical tests’ average result, 15% of report’s result and 50% of the exam’s result. The results of all tests, independent works and exam have to be successful (at least 4).

Compulsory reading

1. Balodis V. Ģ. u.c. Rokasgrāmata bioloģijā. – Rīga: Zvaigzne ABC, 2015. 432 lpp.
2. Misiņa M., Loža V. Ģenētika ar selekcijas pamatiem. – Rīga: Zvaigzne, 1991. 396 lpp.
3. Pierce B.A. 2012. Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. (4 st ed.) W.H. Freeman and Company, 745 p.
4. Бакай A. B., Қочиш И. И., Cкрипниченко Г.Г. Генетика. Москва: Koлoc, 2006. 448 c.

Further reading

1. Garkāvijs F. Ģenētika. – Rīga: Zvaigzne, 1983. 279 lpp.
2. Griffiths A.J.F., et al. Modern Genetic analysis. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 2000. 675. p.
3. Khatib H. (ed.) 2015. Molecular and Quantitative Animal Genetics. Wiley-Blackwell p. 336. ISBN 978-1-118-67740-7 [Personīgais eksemplārs institūtā]
4. Madera S. S. Bioloģija 1. daļa. Rīga: Zvaigzne ABC, 2001. 298 lpp.
5. Raipulis J. Ģenētikas pamati. Rīga: Raka, 2002. 250 lpp.
6. Watson J. D., et al. Molecular Biology of Gene. Pearson Education, 2004. 732 p.

Periodicals and other sources

1. Genetics:
2. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. Wiley. Online ISSN: 1439-0388.
3. NCBI datubāze:
4. OMIA Dzīvnieku iedzimstošo pazīmju datubāze:
5. UCSC Genomu pārlūkprogramma:
6. Ģenētiskās informācijas salīdzināšanas programma Clustal Omega:


Compulsory field professional specialization course in Professional Higher Education Bachelor's study program "Agriculture" qualification "Zootechnican in Breeding".