Course code LauZ3084

Credit points 6

Forest Protection

Total Hours in Course162

Number of hours for lectures32

Number of hours for laboratory classes32

Independent study hours98

Date of course confirmation22.03.2021

Responsible UnitInstitute of Soil and Plant Science

Course developers

author Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūts

Jānis Gailis

Dr. agr.

author reserch

Biruta Bankina

Dr. biol.

Course abstract

The course consists of two parts: “forest phytopathology” and “forest entomology”.
Studying forest phytopathology, students obtain knowledge on the concept “plant diseases” and learn about the causes and causal agents of diseases (fungi, viruses, bacteria). Students comprehend the regularities of disease development and their harmfulness and are acquainted with the most important forest diseases, their causal agents, disease symptoms, life cycles, and possibilities of control. Studying forest entomology, students obtain knowledge on anatomy of insects, concepts ‘forest pest’ and ‘useful species’, also biology and ecology of economically significant species of invertebrates inhabiting forests in Latvia.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knowledge on causes of diseases, principles of classification of their causal agents, peculiarities of diseases caused by viruses and bacteria, meaning of resistance; on systematics, developmental peculiarities, biology and ecology of economically significant invertebrates inhabiting forests in Latvia.
Skills to identify plant diseases, their causal agents and potentially harmful and useful invertebrates' species for forestry of Latvia.
Competences on plant protection methods and means; on peculiarities of development of potentially harmful organisms and environmental factors affecting them.
Knowledge, skills and competences are assessed using six written and one oral test during the study course.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. The conception “plant diseases” and disease causal agents. Classification of diseases. Parasitism and its types.
2. Fungi as important causal agents of plant diseases. Causal agents of diseases from the kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista.
3. Bacteria and viruses as important causal agents of plant diseases.
4. Phylogenetical specialisation, resistance and tolerance.
5. Life cycles of diseases; factors that influence the development of epidemics. Methods of disease assessment and diagnostics.
6. Possibilities of plant protection in nurseries and forests.
7. Diseases of seeds and seedlings.
8. Diseases of trees leaves and needles.
9. Dieback, necrosis, cancers and wilts of branches and stems.
10. Rot of roots and stems.
11. Anatomy of insects, their reproduction and individual development.
12. Systematics and classification of insects.
13. Basics of insects’ ecology.
14. Conception ‘forest pest’, different damages caused by pests, measures for pest control.
15. Root-damaging pests, polyphagous pests of tree nurseries.
16. Pests damaging trunks and branches of trees.
17. Wood-destroying pests.
18. Pests of young forest stands.
19. Pests damaging leafs and needles.
20. Pests damaging fruit and seeds.

21. Commercially useful invertebrates.

Requirements for awarding credit points

The study course parts “forest phytopathology” and “forest entomology” are assessed separately. The final mark is the average mark from both parts, provided both marks are successful (the grade must be at least 4).
Requirements to pass the part “forest phytopathology”:
1) all laboratory works are accomplished;
2) the average grade of the four tests on the theory of forest phytopathology is at least 4.0;
3) practical test on the identification of plant diseases and pathogens is successfully passed (the grade is at least 4).
Requirements to pass the part ‘forest entomology’:
1) all laboratory works are accomplished;
2) written test on insects’ anatomy, reproduction, individual development and ecology is successfully passed (grade is at least 4);

3) oral test on identification of commercially important invertebrates’ species and their economic importance passed successfully (grade is at least 4); only students who passed all laboratory works are allowed to do this test.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Preparing for tests.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Criteria for the assessment of learning outcomes of the part “forest phytopathology”:
1) assessment of laboratory works – passed/not passed;
2) the mark of this part is the average mark from the four written tests. Every question is evaluated separately in each test, and the points are summed up; the maximal mark is 10. A student earns 0.5–2.0 points depending on the complexity of a question, and points are decreased if the answer is incomplete or inaccurate. The final mark can be extended by one point if the practical test is assessed at 7.5 and higher;
3) in the practical test, a student has to identify 10 diseases and their causal agents. A student earns 1.0 point for each correct identification of a sample; if the identification is done only partly, 0.5 points are earned. Points are summed up.
Criteria for assessment of learning outcomes of the part ‘forest entomology’:
1) Assessment of laboratory works – passed/not passed.
2) During written test students must give answers to typical test questions by choosing right answer from several proposed versions. Student earns one point for every correctly answered question. Maximally, it is possible to earn 50 points. Grade of test depends on sum of the earned points:
49...50 points – 10 (excellent);
46...48 point – 9 (very well);
42...45 points – 8 (very good);
38...41 points – 7 (good);
34...37 points – 6 (almost good);
30...33 points – 5 (average);
26...29 points – 4 (almost average);
20...25 points – 3 (weak);
14...19 points – 2 (very weak);
<14 points – 1 (very, very weak).

3) During the oral test, student draws set of ten invertebrates' species economically important for forestry. Each 'species' consists of preparations of individuals in different developmental stages and also of herbariums of damaged plants by the pest. Each student has 15 minutes to prepare. Student must identify all species and to tell about their biology, ecology and economical importance. Student earns 0.5 points for each properly identified species. Similar amount of points are earned if student is able to tell about biology, ecology and economical importance of each species. Therefore, it is possible to earn 10 points in this test. Final grade of the test is sum of points earned.

Compulsory reading

1. Miezīte O. (2017) Meža aizsardzība. 2. daļa. Meža fitopatoloģija. Jelgava, studentu biedrība “Šalkone”, 175 lpp.
2.Bankina.B., Bimšteine G. Kaņeps J. (2021) Vispārējā augu patoloģija: laboratorijas darbi. Jelgava: Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte. – 36 lpp.
3. Plīse E., Bičevskis M. Meža entomoloģija.- Jelgava.-2001.-294 lpp.

4. Plīse E. Kokaugu kaitēkļi. – Jelgava. – 2004. – 239. lpp.

Further reading

1. Tainter F.H., Baker F.A. Principles of forest pathology – John Wiley&Sons, INC.-1996.
2. Kaitēkļi un slimības kokaudzētavās. Rokasgrāmata. Izdevējs – A/S „Latvijas valsts meži”, 2006. – 128. lpp.
3. Rupais A. Kokaugu kaitēkļu sugu noteicējs pēc bojājumiem augļu dārzos un apstādījumos. – R.: Valsts Augu aizsardzības dienests, 1999.

4. Ozols G. Priedes un egles dendrofāgie kukaiņi Latvijas mežos. R.: Zinātne, 1985

Periodicals and other sources

1. Baltic forestry. [ tiešsaiste]. Vol. 1, no. 1 (1995)- Kaunas : Lithuanian Forest Research Institute. sēj. ISSN 1392-1355. [skatīts 08.12.2014.]. Pieejams:
2. Forest pathology. ISSN: 1439-0329. [skatīts 08.12.2014.]. Pieejams Wiley datubāzē:
3. Journal of Applied Ecology : an official journal of the British Ecological Society. [tiešsaiste]. Vol. 1 (May 1964)- Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1964- sēj. ISSN: 1365-2664. [skatīts 08.12.2014.]. Pieejams Wiley datubāzē: