Course code BūvZ5058

Credit points 6

Remote sensing and Spatial Data Processing

Total Hours in Course162

Number of hours for lectures32

Number of hours for laboratory classes32

Independent study hours98

Date of course confirmation15.03.2023

Responsible UnitInstitute of Land Management and Geodesy

Course developers

author Zemes pārvaldības un ģeodēzijas institūts

Grigorijs Goldbergs

Dr. phil.

author reserch

Aivars Ratkevičs

Mg. sc. ing.

Course abstract

The study course is intended to provide students with basic knowledge and skills that would allow them to know how to choose, request and use modern remote sensing technologies, their results as a prepared specialist in various situations in their scientific and professional activities or activities in surveying, agriculture and forestry and other sectors.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knows modern methods of photogrammetry and remote sensing data acquisition, the nature of the methods, application possibilities, data processing and spatial analysis. In fulfilling his professional duties, he knows how to navigate the issues of identifying photogrammetry and remote sensing applications and defining, ordering and implementing work tasks.
Able to apply acquired basic skills for working with remote sensing data, using photogrammetry and remote sensing methods and techniques, their application in modern applied aspects and research directions.
Theoretical knowledge will be tested and evaluated in tests, in the written exam, while skills and abilities will be learned and evaluated in laboratory work.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Remote sensing definition, classification, historical development review.
2. Basic principles of remote sensing technologies, electromagnetic radiation. Remote sensing data characteristics and product application (2 hours)
3. Photogrammetry definition, classification, review of historical development. Integration of remote sensing, photogrammetry, mapping and Geographic Information systems. (1 hour)
4. Remote sensing and photogrammetry instruments and technologies. Selection of sensors. (1 hour)
5. The relationship of photogrammetry with photography, photography basics and equipment. Passive (optical) scene acquisition sensors. Working with photo scenes, measuring and interpreting (deciphering). (2 hours)
6. Coordinate systems in photogrammetry and remote sensing. Scene orientation and scene orientation elements. The nature, planning and implementation of Aerotriangulation (Phototriangulation). (4 hours)
7. Theory of comparison (matching) of digital scenes. Epipolar limitations of scenes. (1 hour)
8. Development of orthophoto maps. Accuracy of orthophoto maps. (2 hours)
9. Digital height models. Methods for obtaining 3D point clouds. (2 hours)
10. Drone (UAV) technologies in remote sensing and photogrammetry. Planning and organization of photography processes. Support point planning. Application of drones in forestry (identification of individual trees and determination of tree parameters). (3 hours)
11. Active sensors – Laser scanning (LiDAR), data processing and application in forestry. (4 hours)
12. Active sensors - Earth surface radar (Synthesized Aperture Radar (SAR) basic principles and data processing) (2 hours)
13. Land use types and forest species classification technologies in remote sensing and photogrammetry. Machine learning methods (random forest, micro-stand species detection, etc.). (3 hours)
14. Monitoring of forest resources and determination of forest inventory parameters (forest stock, biomass, etc.) using remote sensing data. Technologies for spectral analysis of scenes (vegetation indices). (3 hours)
15. Application of remote sensing technologies in determining the damage and consequences of forest fires, storms, floods and other dangerous events (2 hours)

Laboratory work:
1. Creation of 3D point clouds and orthophoto generation using photogrammetric methods (Pix4D) (12 hours)
2. Identification of individual trees and determination of parameters (stock) using open LiDAR data and freely available software (10 hours)
3. Classification of forest species using Sentinel2 satellite data and freely available software (10 hours)

Requirements for awarding credit points

Assessment: Exam – written, covering the questions of the entire subject course, according to the received exam ticket.
To pass the exam, you must successfully pass:
1. Control paper on course theory questions.
2. Successfully completed and defended practical tasks:
2.1 laboratory work – processing of aerial photos and terrestrial scenes, generation of 3D point cloud and orthophoto using photogrammetry techniques and software.
2.2 laboratory work – processing of freely available (Sentinel) satellite data and generation of relevant products using remote sensing techniques and free software.
3. Students' independent work

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Students' independent work - using the skills and abilities acquired during laboratory work, to constantly acquire photogrammetric data with their everyday camera, to process the obtained data using freely available software, presenting the results in written form (volume at least 6 pages, submitted in electronic form).

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The evaluation of the study course depends on the evaluation of the exam task and the cumulative evaluation of the control papers and permanent work of the study course.
A student can get a passing grade for a test or exam if at least 50% of the test questions are answered correctly.
The performance of permanent assignments and exam tasks is assessed according to the established 10-point grading system.
The final exam grade is calculated as the arithmetic mean of the written exam and student independent work grades.

Compulsory reading

1. Vanags V. Fotogrammetrija. VZD. Rīga, 2003. 275 lpp.
2. Kraus K. Photogrammetry: geometry from images and laser scans. Walter de Gruyter, 2011.
Kraus K.. Photogrammetry. Vol.1: Fundamentals and standard processes. Köln: Dümmler, 2000. 397 p.
3. Mūsdienu Latvijas topogrāfiskās kartes. Autoru kolektīvs A. Zelmanis ... u.c. Rīga: VZD, 2001.
4. Štrauhmanis J., Ģeomātikas pamati., Rīga: RTU, 2006.
5. Stūrmanis E. Ģeoinformācijas sistēmas. Jelgava: LLU, 2006.

Further reading

1. Konecny, Gottfried. Geoinformation: remote sensing, photogrammetry and geographic information systems. [tiešsaiste] CRC Press, 2014. [skatīts 29.03.2023.] Pieejams:
2. Luhmann, Robson S., Kyle S., Boehm J. Close-range photogrammetry and 3D imaging. [tiešsaiste] Berlin; Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2013. [skatīts 29.03.2023.] Pieejams:
3. Airborne and terrestrial laser scanning. [tiešsaiste] Edited by G. Vosselman, H. G. Maas. Dunbeath: Whittles Publishing, CRC press. 2010. 318 p. Grāmata pieejama LLU FB abonētajā datubāzē eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost) universitātes tīklā un ārpuss tīkla ar LLU IS parolēm [skatīts 29.03.2023.] Pieejams:

Periodicals and other sources

1. Copernicus Open Access Hub. Pieejams: (Sentinel 1-2 data);
2. The International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Pieejams:
3. EuroSDR National Mapping and Cadastral Agencies with Research Institutes and Universities in Europe. Pieejams:


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