Course code Vete4036

Credit points 1.50

General Pathology I

Additional course materials Vete4036_ Vispārīgā patologija izvērsts saturs.pdf

Total Hours in Course60

Number of hours for lectures14

Number of hours for laboratory classes16

Independent study hours30

Date of course confirmation16.06.2013

Responsible UnitPreclinical Institute

Course developer


Inga Pigiņka-Vjačeslavova

Dr. med. vet.

Prior knowledge

Vete2013, Anatomy of the Domestic Animals I

Vete2014, Anatomy of the Domestic Animals II

Vete2015, Anatomy of the Domestic Animals III

Vete4034, Cytology, Histology and Embryology II

Vete4035, Cytology, Histology and Embryology I

Vete6022, Physiology I

Course abstract

Course of general pathology is to provide understanding of the basic tissue responses to injury in animals with emphysis on pathogenesis, etiology and macroscopic and microscopic appearance. Students become familiar with professional terminology, process of death, postmortem changes, types of inflammation, reversible and irreversible changes, and their process morphology, pathophisiology, etiology, pathogenesis, gross pathology and microscopical changes.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knowledge: students have to understand and be able to explain following able to explain the following pathological processes: disease and death, post-mortem changes, inflammation, fever, cell degeneration, cell necrosis and apoptosis – 2 tests.
Skills: students have to be able to recognize and describe tissue changes in wet tissues from necropsied animals and in images of gross lesions and be able to formulate morphologic diagnosis depending on the changes seen; students have to recognize basic pathologic processes in gross and microscopic tissue samples - practicals.
Competency: according to acquired knowledge and skills discuss in groups and answer independently about pathologic cases using appropriate terminology, explaining pathogenesis of lesions, their causes and prognosis – KEGA work..

Course Content(Calendar)

Theme No 1. Types of tissue changes. Cell reversible and irreversible changes – 7 h lectures and 7 h practical works:
• Introduction in pathology.
• Disease and death.
• Postmortem changes.
• Molecular level changes, microscopical and macroscopical appearance of reversible and irreversible cell injury.
• 1st test about theme No 1.
Theme No2. Inflammation– 6 h lectures and6 h practical works:
• Type of inflammation, their etiology, microscopical and macroscopical appearance.
• Inflammation cells in tissues and blood.
• Inflammatory mediators.
• Generalized inflammatory reaction. Fever and their pathogenesis.
• 2nd testabouttheme No 2.
Theme No 3. Circulatory disorders – 2 h lectures and2 h practical works:
• Edema, hyperaemia, congestion.
• Ischemia, thrombosis, embolism, infarction.

Requirements for awarding credit points

To get the final grade of the study course "passed with out mark", if: 1. Successful passed two tests and KEGA work. 2. Student should get at least 70% from max point amount. Total point amount is formed from: • 2 tests (30 p. by each), • attendance in lectures and practical works (30 p.), • KEGA work and presentation (15 p.), • home works (number can be variable). 3. If student get less than < 70%, he will have extra test in the end of the semester. 4. It is obligate to attend in practical works. Only 1 practical work can be skiped without excuses. Sick leave is acceptable for skip lesson.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Clinical and Epidemiological Case Analysis (KEGA) work is study on a single animal disease, in which the student should study in-depth analysis of the literature. The work consists of the following chapters: etiology of the disease; pathogenesis of disease; morphology of the disease; list of used literature. At least one book in English or German and at least 4 scientific publications must be used in the work. Volume at least 10 p. After submitting the written form of the paper, it should be presented orally with an illustrated PowerPoint presentation of 5 to 7 minutes, expressing the most relevant information on subject, answering questions and justifying the information provided. The work must be submitted and defended within the deadline set by the course supervisor.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Students must pass tests in time. Sick leave is acceptable for late passing. If due to illness (or other reasons), it is not possible to pass the test in the time, it should be passed in 1 week. At the first trial for test passing, the test is evaluated with a maximum of 30 points. Students have 3 more trials for test passing. At the second trial for test passing (2 week from designated date of test), the test is evaluated with a maximum of 25 points. At the third trial for test passing (3 week from designated date of test), the test is evaluated with a maximum of 20 points. At the fourth and more trial for test passing (4 and more week from designated date of test), the test is evaluated with a maximum of 15 points. The current test must be held before the next test. Student is not allowed to participate in the test, if student does not have courses assessment from category "Knowledge" at 1st test designated date (it is Vete2013, Vete2014, Vete2015, Vete4035, Vete4034, Vete6022).
Student skills are assessed in accordance with the procedures specified in the tasks of the practical work.
Study course tests and CECA (KEGA) work are evaluated in accordance with the criteria of the 10 point system scale indicated in the LLU Study Regulations.

Compulsory reading

1. Maxie G. M. Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer's Pathology of Domestic Animals, Volume 3. 6th ed. Saunders Ltd, 2016. 2456 pp. 2. Zachary J. F., McGavin M. D. Pathological basis of veterinary disease. 5th ed. USA: Elsevier, 2012. 1344 p. 3. Parčinskis O. Lauksaimniecības dzīvnieku slimību morfoloģiskās diagnostikas pamati. Rīga: Zvaigzne, 1988. 164 lpp.

Further reading

1. Taibo A. Veterinary Medical Terminology Guide and Workbook. USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2019. 712 p. 2. von Douglas J. Weiss, K. Jane Wardrop. Schalm's Veterinary Hematology. 6th ed. EU:Wiley-Blackwell. 2011. 1232 p.

Periodicals and other sources

1. Journal of Veterinary Pathology. ISSN: 0300-9858. 2. Journal of Comparative Pathology. ISSN 0021-9975. 3. Amerikas veterināro patologu asociācijas interneta lapa. Pieejams: 4. Eiropas veterināro patologu asociācijas interneta lapa. Pieejams:, sadaļa “Histology slide database”


Compulsory course of study programme Veterinary medicine