Course code MežZ3086

Credit points 4

Forest Regeneration and Afforestation

Total Hours in Course160

Number of hours for lectures24

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes40

Independent study hours96

Date of course confirmation15.10.2019

Responsible UnitDepartment of Silviculture

Course developer

author Mežkopības katedra

Baiba Jansone


Course abstract

The aim of the study course is to provide a comprehensive understanding of forest regeneration and afforestation: from tree breeding and plant production, regeneration planning and soil preparation to planting and plant protection, tending.
After completion of the course students are familiar with the most important aspects of forest regeneration, are able to prepare forest regeneration recommendations, plan, are competent to organize (plan and lead) forest regeneration, afforestation at forest property level.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

1. The student knows methods of plant production, tree breeding and forest regeneration techniques and methods for targeted establishment of young stands (seminars, Test 1).
2. The student is able to identify and recommend the most appropriate set of forest regeneration, tending and protection methods for a given set of conditions (seminars, Test 2).
3. The student is competent to prepare and justify a forest regeneration and afforestation plan for a particular forest property / manager (seminars and practical clases).

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Types of forest regeneration, conditions for their application, prevalence.
2. Fostering of natural regeneration: justification, methods, assessment.
3. Establishment of mixed stands: methods, types, justification.
4. Forest tree breeding: basic principles, selection of target traits.
5. Breeding effect (genetic gain) and the factors influencing it. Practical gain from tree breeding.
6. Seed orchards: importance (role), establishment, management.
7. Vegetative and generative propagation of forest trees: basic principles.
8. Influence of forest regeneration type and material on parameters of young stands. Test 1.
9. Planting material: types, preparation for planting.
10. Rules for transfer of forest reproductive material.
11. Forest plants: production, genetic and physiological quality - seminar in the forest nursery, laboratory of vegetative propagation, seed orchards and seed extraction plant.
12. Soil scarification methods, technique and technology.
13. Planting season and types, tools, technique.
14. Forest sowing: applicability, types of soil scarification, technique, results.
15. Influence of soil preparation and type of forest reproductive material on parameters of young stands – seminar. Test 2.
16. Tending (weed control): aim, justification, methods, and techniques.
17. Protection of plantations against the negative impact of abiotic and biotic agents.
18. Principles of forest regeneration, planning, implementation, control – seminar with large-scale forest manager.
19. Selection of forest regeneration method, planning of forest regeneration – group work and individual assignment.
20. Afforestation of agricultural land, establishment of plantations: aim, justification, choice of planting material, specifics of planting, potential yield.
21. Plantations on marginal agricultural lands, agro-forestry – seminar.

22. Fertilization of plantations: practical results.

Requirements for awarding credit points

Course assessment - exam
The seminar should be attended and the given tasks performed. Individual tasks completed and credited; two tests given during the course completed. Exam in the form of test (choice) and open questions at the end of the course. For a successful completion of the exam, at least 50% of answers must be correct.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Systematic studies of theory based on the course plan and assignments. Preparation for seminars (based on provided literature), active participation in discussions and preparation and completion of individual assignments.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Knowledge, skills and competence are assessed on a 10-grade scale. An oral or written answer is successful if at least 50% of the questions are answered correctly.
Assessment is cumulative and consists of the results in the seminar and individual assignments (total 40 %), and two tests (each 30 %) during the course.
The tests are evaluated according to the set procedure – based on the answers to the questions given in the methodological descriptions, provided at the beginning of each study period, the individual assignments are evaluated based on the demonstrated competence to apply the acquired theoretical knowledge and skills.
Requirements and procedures for delayed classes: seminars must be processed within the time and order specified, and one opportunity is given for verbally answering or re-writing the unsuccessful tests.

Compulsory reading

Borges J. G. The Management of Industrial Forest Plantations: Theoretical Foundations and Applications. Springer, 2014 ISBN-13: 978-9401788984
Osman K. T.Forest Soils: properties and mangement. New York: Springer, 2013. ISBN 978-3-319-35196-4
Shepherd K.R. Plantation Silviculture. Springer, ISBN 978-94-010-8478-9

Further reading

Forest Europe [tiešsaiste] [ skatīts 21.10.2019.] Pieejams: (publications, indicators, definitions)

Periodicals and other sources

Baltic Forestry ISSN 1392-1355
New Forests ISSN: 0169-4286


For students of academic bachelor program “Sustainable forestry”