Course code LauZ4006

Credit points 4

Genetics and Plant Breeding

Total Hours in Course160

Number of hours for lectures32

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes32

Independent study hours96

Date of course confirmation07.02.2012

Responsible UnitInstitute of Soil and Plant Science

Course developer

author doc.

Arta Kronberga

Dr. agr.

Prior knowledge

Biol1001, Botany

Biol3014, Plant Physiology I

LauZ2038, Basics in Agronomy I

Course abstract

During the studies we get acquainted with the cytological bases of heredity, the role of mitosis and meiosis in the transfer of genetic information. There have been studied Mendel's heredity theory and molecular backgrounds of heredity, variability of organism, polyploidy, inbreeding and heterosis. The objective of the course of plant breeding is to familiarize students with theoretical and practical aspects of plant breeding: the initial material, genetic structure of populations depending on the reproductive biology, the interaction between quantitative traits and environment, the breeding methodology based on the hybridisation, mutation, poliploidy, heterosis, CMS, genetic engineering, mass and individual selection, estimation methods of selection material, selection to biotic and abiotic stress conditions, resistance to diseases. Pratical considerations.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knowledge about theoretical backgrounds of genetics and field crop objectives. Relationship between genetics and breeding. Main breeding schemes and methods, principle of its choice.
Skills and abilities to calculate of genetic solutions, to compile breeding plan.
Competence. Students are competent to carry out the field crop breeding, to define breeding objective and directions, to evaluate breeding results.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. The definition of genetics, the main research directions. Historical development of plant breeding aims and its significance nowadays. 2h
2. Cytological basis of heredity. 2h
3. Molecular basis of heredity. 2h
4. Mendel’s laws of inheritance; interaction of allelic genes (mono-, dihybrid crossing). Interaction of non-allelic genes (complementation of genes, epistasis). 4h
5. Breeding using methods of modern biotechnology, markers in breeding; 2h
6. Breeding GMO varieties; 2 h
7. Variability of the organism (hereditary and non-hereditary). Classification of mutations. Mutation of genes, chromosomes and genome, and characterization of mutations. 2h
8. Polyploidy. 2h
9. Intergeneric hybridization. 1h
10. Inbreeding and heterosis. Breeding of hybrid varieties. 2h
11. Non-chromosomal heredity. CMS. 1h
12. Basics of population genetics. Breeding of open polinated varieties. 2h
13. Definition of breeding. Main steps of breeding. Organization of the breeding process. Classification and characterization of varieties. Registration of varieties: DUS and VCU tests. 2h
14. The importance of material used for breeding. Gene banks.2h
15. Definition of variety. Types of varieties. 1 h
16. Hybridisation; 1h;
17. Selection. Breeding schemes of self-pollinating plant varieties. Pedigree and Bulk methods. Breeding schemes of open pollinated varieties and synthetic varieties. 2h
18. Breeding for different traits: abiotic factors. 1h
19. Breeding for different traits: biotic factors. 1h

20. aAin steps of breeding and its practical organisation 1 h

Requirements for awarding credit points

The final grade (exam mark) consists of evaluations of tests, tests and defended laboratory / group work, if their average score is above 7 points, otherwise an oral exam.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Reports on laboratory works and explanation of the obtained results. Independent work in preparation for tests.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The final exam is evaluated with a mark on a 10-point scale.

Compulsory reading

1. Benjamin A.Pierce (2016) Genetics: A conceptual approach. W. H. Freeman 929 p.
2. Raipulis J. (2002) Ģenētikas pamati.- R.:Izdevniecība RaKa, 250 lpp.
3. Āboliņš M. Ģenētikas praktikums.- LLU., 1997.- 225 lpp.
4. Griffiths A., Gelbart W., Lewontin R., Miller J., (2002) Modern genetic analysis. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, p. 736.
5. Brown J., Caligari P., Campos H (2014) Plant Breeding; Wiley-Blackwell, 296/295 p.

6. Acquaah G. Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding, Second Edition. Wiley-Blackwell., 2012.- p. 739

Further reading

1. Dictonary of Plant Breeding, (2010) Rolf H.J.Schlegel, CRC Press, 2010.-571 p.
2. Holms I. (1992) Laukaugu selekcija Latvijā.- R.: Avots, 112 lpp.

3. Madera, Silvija S. (2001) Bioloģija : eksperimentāla mācību grāmata. 1. daļa. - Rīga: Zvaigzne ABC,. 290 lpp.

Periodicals and other sources




For the bachelor's study program of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture ,specialization in Agriculture.