Course code LauZ2017

Credit points 3


Total Hours in Course120

Number of hours for lectures16

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes32

Independent study hours72

Date of course confirmation16.11.2011

Responsible UnitInstitute of Animal Science

Course developers

author prof.

Daina Jonkus

Dr. agr.

author lect.

Iveta Kļaviņa-Blekte

Mg. biol.

Course abstract

Students get acquainted with heredity and variation in different global levels of organization – molecular, cellular, trait, individual and population level. Gain insight into the functioning of the gene, its regulation and possibilities of interaction with the external environment.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

After completing the course student will have:
• knowledge about the molecular structure, function and regulation of genes, its interaction with the environment, affecting the animal characteristics; the realization of genetic information from generation to generation; the factors altering the hereditary information and how it affects the animal characteristics; the gene variation, distribution and change in populations (successfully passed theoretical tests and exam).
• skills to explain the mechanisms of genetic inheritance and variation in molecular, cellular, trait, individual and population levels; find and analyse the information of associative gene, causative mutation and inheritance pattern of hereditary traits and disorders in animals (practical works, successfully passed practical tests).
• competences in the knowledge associated with other agricultural branches and will be able to use that knowledge for veterinary study (successfully passed tests, exam and prepared report).

Course Content(Calendar)

1. The definition of Genetics, the main branches and subfields of genetics, its practical importance. Genetic research object, model organisms, basic terms. Lectures 1h, practical works 1h.
2. The cell cycle. Mitosis, meiosis. Basis of genetic variation. – 2h practical works. Lectures 1h, practical works 3h.
3. Cytological and chromosomal basis of inheritance. The structure and organization levels of the hereditary material (DNA). Lectures 1h, practical works 1h.
4. Hybridological analysis. Mendelian inheritance. Interaction between alleles of one gene. – 4h practical works. Practical works 4h.
1. practical test: Mendelian inheritance and its cytological basis, basic principles of inheritance of traits.
5. Molecular basis of inheritance. DNA structure and replication process. Gene expression (protein synthesis) – transcription, RNA processing and translation. Genetic code. Gene expression regulation in eukariotes – Lectures 2h, practical works 1h.
6. Interaction of genes, epistasis, polimery. Inheritance of basic coat colours in mammals. Lectures 2h.
7. Mitochondrial DNA, inheritance pattern of mtDNA coded traits. Practical works 6h.
8. Modelling of gene expression. Information analysis of genes determining animal traits. – Lectures 2h, practical works 1h.
1. Theoretical test: Cytological and molecular basis of inheritance.
9. Sex determination systems, sex-related animal traits. Practical works 3h.
10. Inheritance pattern of sex-linked traits. – 2h practical works. Lectures 1h.
11. The definition and types of variation. Main source of genetic variation – mutations. Types, causes and effect of small and large scale mutations – Practical works 2h.
2. theoretical test: Inheritance principles of sex-determined traits, variation, significance and classification of mutations.
12. Gene linkage and recombination, genetic mapping. – 2h practical works. Lectures 2h, practical works 1h.
2. practical test: principles of inheritance of traits determined by non-alelic gnenes, linked genes and sex-related genes.
13. Population genetics, genetic structure of population. Hardy-Weinberg law. Factors and processes influencing population’s genetic structure: genetic drift, gene flow, selection – Practical works 4h..
14. Analysis of population genetic structure. Influence of selection to changes of genetic structure of population. – Lectures 2h.
3. practical test: Principles of gene pool analysis.
15. Genetic basis of animal breeding methods. Practical works 4h.

Requirements for awarding credit points

Lecture attendance is recommended, practical work attendance – mandatory.
All practical works have to be worked out and credited.
Prepared and presented report.
Two theoretical and three practical tests successfully passed.
Written exam successfully passed.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Independent literature studies and consultations with the lecturer on lecture and practical work themes.
Students have to prepare and present a report of associative gene, causative mutation and inheritance pattern of hereditary trait or disorder in animals.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The final assessment of learning outcomes consists of 25% of practical work tests’ average result, 25% of the theoretical tests’ average result and 50% of the exam’s result.

Compulsory reading

1. Balodis V. Ģ. u.c. Rokasgrāmata bioloģijā. – Rīga: Zvaigzne ABC, 2015. 432 lpp.
2. Misiņa M., Loža V. Ģenētika ar selekcijas pamatiem. – Rīga: Zvaigzne, 1991. 396 lpp.
3. Бакай A. B., Қочиш И. И., Cкрипниченко Г.Г. Генетика. Москва: Koлoc, 2006. 448 c.

Further reading

1. Āboliņš M. Ģenētikas praktikums. – Jelgava: LLU, 1997. 225 lpp.
2. Garkāvijs F. Ģenētika. – Rīga: Zvaigzne, 1983. 279 lpp.
3. Raipulis J. Ģenētikas pamati. Rīga: Raka, 2002. 250 lpp.
4. Watson J. D., et al. Molecular Biology of Gene. Pearson Education, 2004. 732 p.
5. Pierce B.A. 2003. Genetics: A Conceptual Approach. (1st ed.) W.H.Freeman&Company, 736 p.
6. Griffiths A.J.F., et al. Modern Genetic analysis. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 2000. 675. p.
7. Khatib H.(ed.) 2015. Molecular and Quantitative Animal Genetics. Wiley-Blackwell p. 336. ISBN 978-1-118-67740-7
8. Nicholas F. W. Introduction to Veterinary Genetics. Oxford University Press, 1996. 317 p.

Periodicals and other sources

1. Genetics:
2. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. Wiley. Online ISSN: 1439-0388.
3. Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitātes Raksti. Latvijas Lauksaimniecības universitāte. ISSN 1407-4427.
4. NCBI datubāze:
5. OMIA Dzīvnieku iedzimstošo pazīmju datubāze:
6. UCSC Genomu pārlūkprogramma:
7. Ģenētiskās informācijas salīdzināšanas programma Clustal Omega:
8. Archiv fur Tierzucht-Archives of Animal Breeding. Herausgeber Forschungsinstitut fur die Biologie landwirtschaftliche Nuztiere (FBN), Dummerstorf. ISSN 0003-9438.


Compulsory study course for 2nd level professional study programme “Veterinary Medicine”.