Course code Ķīmi3005

Credit points 4


Total Hours in Course160

Number of hours for lectures32

Number of hours for laboratory classes48

Independent study hours80

Date of course confirmation30.03.2021

Responsible UnitDepartment of Chemistry

Course developer

author Ķīmijas katedra

Velga Miķelsone

Dr. sc. ing.

Prior knowledge

Ķīmi2002, Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry II

Ķīmi2004, Physical and Colloidal Chemistry I

Ķīmi2018, Food Organic Chemistry

Course abstract

Biochemistry studies the chemical composition of live organisms and the chemical processes of metabolism.
The course covers the biochemical transformations of several food components, with an aim to gain understanding of the interconnectedness of metabolism processes and their regulation within an organism. Understanding of these processes is a necessary base of professional activities in food technology and food-processing science.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knowledge of biochemical processes in the human body, understanding of the key concepts and regularities of biochemistry and their relationship with food science and food technology.
Understands The chemical behavior of the chemical composition and metabolism of living organisms, the biochemical transformation of food, the interconnectness between processes of metabolism and their regulation in the body. Tests 1 to 9.
Skills. Able to use learned the biochemistry theoretical foundations and skills, manage a professional or innovative activities, formulate and analytically describe the information, problems and solutions with biochemistry Laboratory works 1 to 13.
Competence: ability to independently obtain, select, analyze and use information; to make decisions and solve problems with the biochemical aspects of professions related to food production, decoration of laboratory work reports, processing, analysis, evaluation and defense of results obtained in laboratory work.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. The chemical composition of living organisms. 1. laboratory work – Chromatographic determination of amino acids. (Lecture – 2 h, Laboratory work – 4 h).
2. 2. Simple and complex proteins, nucleic acid functions in living organisms. 2. laboratory work – Distribution of lean protein fractions. Test 1. (Lecture – 3 h, Laboratory work – 3 h.)
3. Enzymes. 3. laboratory work – Hydrolytic cleavage of yeast nucleoproteins and the demonstration of reaction products. Test 2. (Lecture – 2 h, Laboratory work – 4 h).
4. Substance change stages. Biological Oxidation. 4. laboratory work – Oxidation - Reducing enzymes. Test 3. (Lecture – 3 h, Laboratory work – 3 h).
5. Carbohydrate metabolism Part 1. 5. laboratory work – Enzymatic hydrolysis of the starch by amylase. The dependence of the enzyme on temperature. Specificity of saccharase. Test 4. (Lecture – 2 h, Laboratory work – 4h).
6. Carbohydrate metabolism Part 2. 6. laboratory work – Determination of lactose content in milk. Test 5. (Lecture – 3 h, Laboratory work – 3 h).
7. Lipid metabolism Part 1 7. laboratory work – Determination of peroxide value in fat. Test 6. (Lecture – 2 h, Laboratory work – 4 h).
8. Lipid metabolism Part 2. 8. laboratory work – Determination of ketone bodies in the urine. Test 7. (Lecture – 3 h, Laboratory work – 3 h).
9. Protein metabolism Part 1. 9. laboratory work – Protein enzymatic hydrolysis. Stomach acid. Pancreas lipase and bile properties. Test 8. (Lecture – 2 h, Laboratory work – 4 h).
10. Protein metabolism Part 2. 10. laboratory work – Determination of protein in milk. (Lecture– 2h, Laboratory work – 4 h).
11. Water role and change. Mineral change. 11. laboratory work – Isolation of caseinogen from milk and its hydrolytic cleavage. (Lecture – 2 h, Laboratory work – 4 h).
12. 12.Hormone regulation of substances change. 12. laboratory work – Urea and uric acid qualitative demonstration reactions. Hydrolytic cracking of urea with NaOH and urease. Adrenaline. Test 9. (Lecture – 2 h, Laboratory work – 4 h).
13. Fats and water-soluble vitamins in the metabolism process. 13. laboratory work – Determination of ascorbic acid in fruits and roots. (Lecture – 2 h, Laboratory work –4 h).
14. Interchangeability of substances. (Lecture – 2 h).

Requirements for awarding credit points

Written exam. To pass the exam, all 9 tests and 13 laboratory works must be passed.
The exam consists of:
• questions on the theoretical material covered during the study course;
• questions about the topics taught at the study course laboratory.
The course is considered successful if the exam grade is not lower than “4” (almost satisfactory).

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

1.Study of educational literature and scientific literature, independently preparing answers to 9 tests and exam questions.
2. Processing, calculation, analysis and evaluation of the results obtained in laboratory work.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The study course ends with a written exam.
The assessment of the study course examination consists of the assessment of the examination tasks (50%) and the assessment of the 9 tests of the course (50%).
The student can get successful assessment (4 points) in the test and exam if at least 50% of the questions are answered correctly.
All tests are scored using a 10-point scale

Compulsory reading

1. Nelson, David L. Lehninger principles of biochemistry: University of Wisconsin-Madison, - Seventh edition. - New York, NY : W.H. Freeman and Company ; Houndmills, Basingstoke : Macmillan Higher Education, 2017, I45 lpp
2. Biochemistry Lippincot Ilustrated Rewievs, 7 Edition, Philadelphia, Wolters Kluver, 2017, p.567
3. McKee T., McKee J.R. Biochemistry: the molecular basis of life. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012., p. 752
4. King M. W. Integrative Medical Biochemistry, Indiana University School of Medicine and Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine Terre Haute, Indiana, 2014- 1871 pgs.
5. Robert K.Murray, David A.Bender, Kathleen M. Botham, Peter J. Kennely, Victor W. Rodwell, P. Anthony Weil, „Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry, the twenty-ninth edition”, University of California, San Francisco,2012- 1125 pgs.
6. Miķelsone V. Bioķīmija. Mācību līdzeklis. Jelgava: LLU, Rīga: Drukātava, 2008 197 lpp.

Further reading

1. Eskin N.A.M. Biochemistry of foods. Third edition / edited by N.A. Michael Eskin and Fereidoon Shahidi. Amsterdam : Academic Press, an imprint of Elsevier, 2013, p. 565
2. Belitz H.-D., Grosch W., Schieberle P. Food Chemistry. Berlin etc.: Springer – Verlag, 2009. 1070 lpp.
3. Kūka M. Lipīdi. Mācību līdzeklis organiskajā ķīmijā. Jelgava: LLU, Rīga: Drukātava, 2007. 46 lpp.
4. Kūka M. Ogļhidrāti. Mācību līdzeklis organiskajā ķīmijā. Jelgava: LLU, Rīga: Drukātava, 2007. 58 lpp.

Periodicals and other sources

1. The Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry. Published by Springer. ISSN (printed): 1138-7548. ISSN (electronic): 1877-8755. Anotācijas LLU FB datubāze SpringerLink
2. The International Journal of Biotechnology & Biochemistry. Published by Research India Publications. ISSN: 0973-2691. Pieejams arī:
3. International Journal of Biochemistry &Cell Biology. Published by Elsevier Science. ISSN:1357-2725. Pieejams LLU FB datubāzē ScienceDirect.


Compulsory course for the second level professional higher education study program "Food Technology" in the 4th semester.