Course code LauZ6133

Credit points 5

Fruit Science

Total Hours in Course200

Number of hours for lectures40

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes40

Independent study hours120

Date of course confirmation19.02.2016

Responsible UnitInstitute of Soil and Plant Science

Course developers

author Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūts

Ilze Grāvīte

Dr. agr.

author Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūts

Kaspars Kampuss

Dr. agr.

Prior knowledge

LauZ6105, Biology Basic in Horticulture

Course abstract

Students get in-depth knowledge about botanical ancestors of fruit and berry cultivar genetic resources and their geography. Diversity of the fruit and berry crops and their cultivars; classification systems of the cultivars. Relevance of biological properties of fruit and berry crops to their growing systems and technics.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

1. In-depth knowledge of the botanical and pomological composition of the main fruit/berry plants in relation to the ecological conditions and the cultivation techniques used, as well as the main results and trends of recent research in the sector - Lectures and seminars.
2. Skills to analyze and justify the choice of crops and cultivation technologies with the aim to promote economically profitable diversified berry/fruit production, to evaluate new scientific information, to study and to gather information - individual work.

3. Competence to formulate and analyze scientific problems in the field of fruit/berry growing, to prepare presentations, as well as to justify their decisions and views - seminars.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Fruit/berry production - directions of production and research (organic and integrated or sustainable production; resource efficiency, risk and pest reduction, fruit plant breeding and cultivar development). Fruit and berry production in Latvia and the world, development prospects. Garden systems, the target market that defines production characteristics. Co-operation.
2. The role of fruit/berry growing in sustainable agricultural development in Latvia and ensuring healthy food - impact to environment (reduction of soil and water pollution, ensuring soil fertility and environmental diversity, gas emissions, forecasting systems). Nutritional value and role of fruit plants in food.
3. Pomology - a science on fruit plant varieties. Cultivar classification systems. Classification and origin of rootstocks, compatibility with varieties - manifestations and effects of incompatibility. Acquisition and quality of planting material incl. virus-free plants.
4. Production of pome fruits: Apple and pear cultivars, species used for their production. Rootstocks. Garden systems, crown formation principles and solutions. Environmental factors impact assessment, risk mitigation solutions like irrigation, coverings, support systems. Production efficiency improving options - mechanization, work organization, garden planning, plant formation. Fruit ripeness and storage, sorting, marketing solutions.
5. Stone fruit production: Plum, sweet and sour cherry, apricot and peach varieties, species used for breeding them. Rootstocks. Garden systems, crown formation principles and solutions. Environmental factors impact assessment, risk mitigation solutions like irrigation, coverings, support systems. Production efficiency improving options - mechanization, work organization, garden planning, plant formation. Fruit ripeness and storage, sorting, marketing solutions.
6. Strawberries: Strawberry species used for the basis of the garden strawberry gene pool. Strawberry cultivars. Plants, their growing for various production systems; quality of plants, its importance. Production season extension. Environmental factors impact assessment, risk mitigation solutions like irrigation, coverings, pollination. Production efficiency options - mechanization, work organization, garden planning. Sanitation and harvesting principles, sorting, marketing solutions.
7. Raspberries and blackberries: Summer and autumn raspberry, and blackberry cultivars. Plants, their growing for various production systems; quality of plants, its importance. Production season extension. Environmental factors impact assessment, risk mitigation solutions like irrigation, coverings, pollination. Production efficiency options - mechanization, work organization, garden planning. Sanitation and harvesting principles, sorting, marketing solutions.
8. Scrubs: blackcurrants, red/white currants and gooseberries - species, cultivars. Peculiarities and possibilities of production, depending on the products and their marketing. Production risks and their mitigation possibilities, mechanization.
9. Cranberries, their cultivars and production peculiarities (propagation, plantation establishment, care). Mechanization. Mitigation of environmental risks and use of resources.
10. Blueberries, their cultivar genotypic character. Peculiarities of propagation and plantation establishment, environmental requirements and mitigation of environmental risks.
11. Vines. Species and cultivars. Propagation, plantation establishment, care and formation peculiarities.
12. Sea buckthorn - cultivars, their origin, biological and technological peculiarities of propagation, plantation establishment and harvesting, major challenges.

13. Minor fruit, berry and nut crop cultivation opportunities in Latvia: species, cultivars, technological solutions, major challenges, fruit utilization.

Requirements for awarding credit points

An exam.

Students, who have successfully presented their presentations in the seminars, can pass the exam.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Each student prepares a presentation (research of scientific and professional literature) for a seminar on two topics agreed with the lecturer from the course content. The work is presented to the student group at the seminar. Approximate length of presentation is 30 minutes. The student should be able to answer questions, discuss the topic and justify his / her opinion.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The final mark consists of the exam mark (75%) and the average mark from the seminars during the semester (25%).

Compulsory reading

1. Augļkopība. Red. L. Ikase. Dobeles novads: LV Augļkopības institūts, 2015. 544 lpp.
2. Temperate and subtropical fruit production. D. I. Jackson, N. E. Looney (ed.). 2nd edition. UK: CABI Publishing, 2006. 332 p.
3. The Encyclopedia of Fruit and Nuts. J. Janick, R.E. Paull. (ed.). Wallingford, UK; Cambridge, MA: CAB International, 2008. 954 p.

4. Fundamentals of Temperate Zone Tree Fruit Production. Ed. by J. Tromp, A.D. Webster, S.J.Wetheim. Leiden: Backuys Publishers, 2005. 400 p.

Further reading

1. Improving the health-promoting properties of fruit end vegetable products. F.A.Tomas-Barberan, M.I.Gil (ed.). England: Woodhead Publishing, 2008. 559 p.
2. Wills R.B.H., McGlasson W.B., Graham D., Joyce D.C. Postharvest. (5th edition). An introduction to the physiology and handling of fruit, vegetables and ornamentals. 5th edition. UK: CABI Publishing, 2007. 227 p.
3. Sudrabs J. 1960 Augļkopība. Rīga: LVI, 679. lpp (arī citi laidumi)
4. Skrīvele M., Ikase L. 2013. Latvijas ābeles. Rīga: Jumava, 136 lpp.
5. Kārkliņš J., Skrīvele M., Kaufmane E., Ikase L. 2007. Plūmju šķirnes. LVAI, Dobele, 204 lpp.
6. Kārkliņš J. 2004. Bumbieru šķirnes. Dobele, 299 lpp.
7. Ruisa S., Kaufmane E. 2008. Ķiršu, aprikožu un persiku šķirnes. Latvijas Pomoloģija, Izd. Latvijas Valsts Augļkopības institūts, 216 lpp.
8. Strautiņa S., Kalniņa I. 2019. Avenes un to audzēšana. Rīga: Jumava,
9. Strautiņa S., Kaufmane E. 2011. Dobeles ceriņi. Rīga: Jumava, 96.lpp.
10. Skrīvele M., Rubauskis E., Strautiņa S. 2011. Augļu koku un ogulāju veidošana. Rīga: Zvaigzne ABC, 96.lpp.
11. Vēsturiskie dārzi. Šķirņu katalogs. Kviklys D., Gelvonauskiene D., Karkleliene R., Juškevičiene D., Dambrauskiene E., Uselis N., Lanauskas J., Ikase L., Lepse L., Kaufmane E., Feldmane D., Dēķena Dz., Zeipiņa S. Babtai: Lietuvos agrarinių ir miškų mokslų centras filialas Sodininkystės ir daržininkystės institutas, 2019. 175 p.
brīvpieejas informācijas avots: http://fruittechcentre.eu/sites/default/files/2019-03/skirnu_katalogs_elektroniska_versija_HG.pdf

Periodicals and other sources

1. ISHS izdevums "Acta Horticulturae" ISSN: 0567-7572 http://www.actahort.org/
2. Žurnāls "Agrotops" ISSN: 407-5164
1. Westwood M.N. Temperate-zone pomology physiology and culture. 3rd edition. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press, 1993. 523 p.
3. Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences. brīvpieejas informācijas avots: https://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/prolas/prolas-overview.xml?tab_body=overview un konkrēti 2017. gada 71. sējums Nr. 3: https://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/prolas/71/3/prolas.71.issue-3.xml
2013. gada 67. sējums Nr.2: https://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/prolas/67/2/prolas.67.issue-2.xml
4. Zinātniski praktisko konferenču “Līdzsvarota Lauksaimniecība” rakstu krājumi, kas ir brīvpieejas informācijas avots:
http://www.lf.llu.lv/lv/lidzsvarota-lauksaimnieciba
5. “Profesionālā Dārzkopība” - e-žurnāls brīvpieejas informācijas avots: http://fruittechcentre.eu/lv/profesionala-darzkopiba
6. Fruit Quarterly - e-žurnāls brīvpieejas informācijas avots http://nyshs.org/fruit-quarterly/past-issues/

7. Obstbau - https://www.obstbau.org/

Notes

Restricted Elective Course in academic master study program “Agriculture” specialization in Horticulture.