Course code PārZ3003

Credit points 2

Meat, Meat Processing I

Total Hours in Course80

Number of hours for lectures16

Number of hours for laboratory classes16

Independent study hours48

Date of course confirmation12.10.2011

Responsible UnitDepartment of Food Technology

Course developer

author Pārtikas tehnoloģijas katedra

Ilze Grāmatiņa

Dr. sc. ing.

Prior knowledge

Ķīmi1010, Organic Chemistry I

Ķīmi1011, Organic Chemistry I

Ķīmi2006, Organic Chemistry II

Ķīmi2007, Organic Chemistry II

Ķīmi3005, Biochemistry

Ķīmi4005, Biochemistry

PārZ2004, Food Engineering and Equipment I

PārZ3008, Food Engineering and Equipment II

PārZ3010, Microbiology I

PārZ3011, Microbiology II

Course abstract

In this study course the students can obtained the knowledge about chemical composition, physical properties and criteria of estimation of meat. Also students give a basic knowledge about process of meat and meat products and about physical, biochemical and microbiological processes during making of those products. Gains knowledge about the causes of defects in various meat products and the possibilities for their elimination. Acquainted with the meat products used in special equipment, food safety requirements for the production of meat products.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Theoretical and practical knowledge of the morphological structure of meat, quality, chemical composition, nutritional value, biochemical processes in meat; changes in the quality of meat and the processes affecting it; basic conditions for the storage of by-products, blood collection, intestinal processing and fat extraction – 1st, 2nd, 3rd test.
Skills to determine, evaluate and explain the freshness of meat, its changes, using sensory and physico-chemical evaluation methods; changes in the quality of meat processing products in technological processes – 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Laboratory work;
Competences are able to organize food production, storage of raw materials and quality control, assess and analyze risk factors in food production, orientate in the legal framework for obtaining safe and secure food, observe occupational safety regulations, assess the impact of professional activities on society as a whole – lectures, laboratory works.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. The role of meat, its morphological structure (muscle, connective tissue, fat tissue, bone tissue) (Lecture – 1 h).
2. Meat quality and nutritional value. Meat chemical composition (Lecture – 1 h).
3. Biochemical and microbiological developments in meat. Meat rigor-mortis, maturation and breaking down (Lecture – 1 h).
4. Maturation process intensification. Maturation of meat. Maturation of wet and dry meat. 1st test. Meat morphological structure, quality, chemical composition, nutritional value of meat, biochemical behaviour of meat. (Lecture – 2 h; 1st Laboratory work).
5. Stress effects on animals. The effect of stress on meat quality. PSE and DFD defect of meat (Lecture – 1 h).
6. Rules for the transfer, acceptance, and documentation of animals, birds. Preparing it for transportation (Lecture – 1 h).
7. Preparation of animals for processing, premature aging. Slaughtering and processing meat of bovine animals (Lecture – 1 h; 2nd Laboratory work).
8. Slaughter of pigs and technology for processing meat. Slaughter of bird and meat processing technology (Lecture – 1 h).
9. Contamination, safety, risk assessment during bovine, porcine and poultry slaughter and processing. 2nd test. Effects of stress on animals, meat quality, PSE and DFD defects, animal, bird preparation for processing and slaughter. (Lecture – 2 h).
10. Classification of by-products according to their morphological structure, chemical composition, technological processing, nutritional value (Lecture – 1 h; 3rd Laboratory work).
11. Fat extraction methods from raw fats. Evaluation of the quality of melted fat (Lecture – 1 h).
12. Construction and division of animal intestines, their technological processing and quality assessment (Lecture – 1 h).

13. Blood collection, use, and technological treatment. 3rd test. The by-products storage, blood collection, intestinal processing and fat extraction. (Lecture – 2 h; 4th Laboratory work – 4h).

Requirements for awarding credit points

Test with a mark is formed as follows:
• laboratory works have been visited, developed and defended (50%);

• successfully written 3 theoretical tests (50%).

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Independent work is an individual study with the aim to deepen the theoretical knowledge about technological processes of meat and meat products production and equipment, various packaging materials, meat quality and safety issues, preparation for tests and laboratory work.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The assessment of the study course depends on:
• participation in laboratory works;
• the assessment of the study course tests.
The student prepares the developed laboratory work in written form, answering questions related to the practical and theoretical basis of the work.
Students will be able to obtain a successful mark of test work (questions in the form of test and short answers) if at least 50% of the questions are answered correctly.
For a successful written test, the student receives a score of 4-10 points. The unsuccessful grades obtained in the tests are to be rewritten, they are summed together, calculating the arithmetic mean of the test work.

Compulsory reading

1. Lawrie's Meat Science. Toldra. F. (Ed.) Duxford: Woodhead Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier. 2017. – 713 p. ISBN 9780081006948.
2. Zdolec. N. Fermented Meat Product: health aspects. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2016. – 558 p. E-grāmata
3. Nollet, L. M. L., Toldrá. F. Advanced technologies for meat processing. Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2006. – 483 p. E-grāmata.
4. Feiner, G. Meat products handbook. England: Woodhead publishing limited. 2006. – 648 p.

Further reading

1. Kampuse, S., Grāmatiņa, I., Kunkulberga, D., Ciproviča, I. Ceļvedis mājražošanā. Ozolnieki: Latvijas Lauku konsultācijas un izglītības centrs. 2015. – 78 lpp.
2. Heinz, G., Hautzinger, P. Meat processing technology. Bangkok: FAO. 2007. – 368 p.
3. Toldra, F. Handbook of meat processing. USA: Publishing by Wiley-Blackwell. 2010. – 566 p.
4. Kerry, J., Kerry, J., Ledward, D. Meat processing. England: Woodhead publishing limited. 2002. – 464 p.
5. Сарафанова, Л.А. Применение пищевых дабавок в переработке мяса и рыбы. Санкт-Петербург: Издательство «Профессия». 2007. – 255 ст.
6. Зонин, В.Г. Современное поизводство колбасных и солено-копчоных изделий. Санкт-Петербург: Издательство «Профессия». 2007. – 221 ст.

Periodicals and other sources

1. Рогов, И.А., Жаринов, А.И.,Текутъева, Л.А., Шепелъ, Т.А. Биотехнология мяса и мясапродуктов. Москва: ДеЛи принт. 2009. – 296 ст.
2. Лисицын, А.Б., Липатов, Н.Н., Кудряшов, Л.С., Алексахина, В.А., Чернуха, И.М. Технология и практика переработки мяса. Москва: Эдиториал сервис. 2008. – 305 ст.
3. Meat science. The Official Journal of The American Meat Science Association.


Obligatory course – Full-time students of Food Technology Faculty second level professional higher education study program "Food technologies".