Course code LauZP004

Credit points 1

Forest Protection

Total Hours in Course40

Independent study hours40

Date of course confirmation12.09.2014

Responsible UnitInstitute of Soil and Plant Science

Course developers

author Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūts

Jānis Gailis

Dr. agr.

author Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūts

Gunita Bimšteine

Dr. agr.

Course abstract

Field practice is continuation for theoretical study course “Forest protection”. Visiting different forest habitats and tree nurseries, students acquaint themselves with important forest’s pests, diseases and their caused damages on woody plants.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knowledge on connection between sciences of plant pathology and forest entomology and practical forestry.
Skills to find and to diagnose diseases and pests of woody plants in nature; to create and to design collections and herbariums of forest’s pests, of damages caused by them and diseases of woody plants.
Competence to assess condition of forest or plant material.


For assessment of knowledge, skills and competences, students collect and design collection of forest pests and herbariums of damaged woody plants by pests and diseases.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Acquaintance with pests and diseases of woody plants in tree nurseries.
2. Acquaintance with pests and diseases of woody plants in different coniferous and mixed forest habitats.
3. Acquaintance with pests and diseases of woody plants in pine forests typical for seacoast in Latvia.

4. Acquaintance with pests and diseases of woody plants in different deciduous forest habitats.

Requirements for awarding credit points

Test without grade.
Students must accomplish two practical works accordingly to instructions of lecturers:
1) collection/herbarium of trees' diseases and their causal agents must be collected, designed and submitted;
2) collection and herbarium of economically important invertebrates and damaged woody plants by pests must be collected, designed and submitted.

Requirements for design of collections.
The quantity of the collection is 30 diseases. Each sample should consist of at least five leaves or two or three bulbs or shoots, or one tree-fungus together with a piece of wood; for needle diseases, at least 10 diseased needles are required, better together with a shoot.
The symptoms of only one disease should be visible on a plant or a part of a plant; the symptoms should be typical.
Specimens should be placed between two sheets of paper, without fixing them. A label should be added.

An example of the label:

Disease: mildew of maple
Causal agent: Uncinulla aceris
Order and phylum: Erysiphales
Ascomycota
Time of collecting: 20 August 2014
Place of collecting: Jelgava district, Platone mynicipality
Author: Agita Bērziņa

The diseases that are studied during the laboratory work should be precisely identified; for other diseases, only the group of a disease (mildew, rust, etc.) and the phylum and order of the causal agent are required.

Collection of economically important invertebrates and herbarium of damaged woody plants must correspond with these requirements. Totally, individuals of 15 species of invertebrates (14 species of pests and one species of beneficial invertebrates) and 15 wooden plants damaged by pests must be collected.
For collection of invertebrates, at least one imago or larva (nymph) in good condition of each species must be collected. Individuals of each species must be put in separate vial in ethanol. In each vial, also two etiquettes with information on collection circumstances and identification of species must be put in.
For herbarium of damaged woody plants, part of plant with doubtless and recognizable traces of activity of one pest must be collected. Damaged leaves must be collected together with part of twig or trunk. Samples of damaged leaves and bark must be properly dried and pressed. Damaged bigger trunks must be split into smaller pieces. All collected underground parts of plants must be washed and dried. All parts of plants put in herbarium must retain their natural colour. Samples of damaged leaves together with etiquettes with information on sampling circumstances and identification of species must be put into folded sheet of A4 paper. Samples of damaged bark and trunks should not be put in any packing, etiquettes must be pinned to them using little pins.
Examples of etiquettes:

Jelgava reg., Valgunde
Clearcut of dry pine forest
On pine stump
30.05.2019
Leg. A. Dricāns


Rhagium inquisitor
Cerambycidae
Det. A. Dricāns, 2019


‘Leg.’ etiquette contains data on sampling circumstances: maximally precise geographical place (first row), habitat (second row), microhabitat (third row), date of sampling (fourth row) and name of person who sampled the specimen (fifth row). ‘Det.’ etiquette contains information on identification of species: name of species in Latin (first row), name of family in Latin (second row) and name of person who identified the specimen (third row).

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Accordingly to instructions of lecturers, students collect and design collections and herbariums of forest pests, diseases and damaged woody plants.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Assessment of both practical works – passed/not passed.

Compulsory reading

1. Bankina B. Bimšteine G. (2014) Praktikums vispārējā augu patoloģijā. Jelgava, LLU, 28. lpp.
2. Kaitēkļi un slimības kokaudzētavās (2006) Rokasgrāmata. Rīga: A/S “Latvijas valsts meži”, 128. lpp.
3. Miezīte O. (2017) Meža aizsardzība. 2. daļa Meža fitopatoloģija. Jelgava, studentu biedrība “Šalkone”, 175 lpp.
4. Plīse E., Bičevskis M. (2001). Meža entomoloģija. Jelgava, LLU, 294 lpp.

5. Plīse E. (2004). Kokaugu kaitēkļi. Jelgava, LLU, 239 lpp.