Course code LauZ6105

Credit points 4

Biology Basic in Horticulture

Total Hours in Course160

Number of hours for lectures48

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes16

Independent study hours96

Date of course confirmation18.01.2011

Responsible UnitInstitute of Soil and Plant Science

Course developer

author Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūts

Kaspars Kampuss

Dr. agr.

Course abstract

Students have an in-depth knowledge of the role of horticultural plants in the world plant system, understand the growth and development of horticulture and the biology of crop formation, as well as opportunities to optimize them.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

1. In-depth knowledge of the systematics and morphology of horticultural plants in relation to their growth, development, yield formation and biological processes, and know current scientific research trends and main results in this field - lectures and seminars.
2. skills to relate the morphological and biological characteristics of horticultural plants to the ecological conditions they require, and to optimize these conditions in the context of available growing technologies and market-based quality requirements, to evaluate, independently study and gather new scientific information - independent work - essays and seminars.

3. competences to understand and analyze scientific information in the field of horticultural biology, to prepare presentations, as well as to justify own decisions and opinions - seminars.

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Classification of horticultural plants. Horticultural plant centers of origin and modern production areas and the necessary conditions
2. Horticultural plant organs for human consumption. Metamorphoses of roots and rhizomes. Underground organs of carrot, beetroot, chicory, black root, parsnip, celery, horseradish, their morphological and anatomical characterization. Trunk metamorphoses. The concept of trunks, stems, leaves. Common and distinct morphological and anatomical characteristics of different horticultural plant trunks, their morphological and anatomical characterization
3. Horticultural plant branches and branching. Types of branching. Branches adapted for a specific functional task: vegetative, reproductive, mixed-task branches, and their incidence in various plant vascular systems. Annual, biennial and perennial plants, branch metamorphoses
4. Horticultural plant buds and leaves, their physiological and ornamental role, morphology, anatomy, classification. Classification of buds according to their position in the branch and their functional role. Anatomical structure of buds. Organogenesis in buds and its diagnosis. Physiological and decorative role of leaves. Morphology and anatomy of different horticultural plant leaves. Horticultural plants with edible leaves, leaf stalks. Ontogenetic variability of leaf morphology. Leaves (needles) of spring, winter, evergreen plants, their morphology and anatomy. Sun-loving, shadow –loving plants, succulents, etc. Leaves of plants adapted to grow in specific conditions
5. Horticultural plant flowers. Flower arrangements in inflorescences and separately. Flowers with different functional role: female, male, hermaphroditic flowers, their morphology. Flower nectaries
6. Horticultural plant seeds and fruit. The most significant anatomical - morphological characterization of horticultural plant fruits. Structure of horticultural plant seeds, anatomical and morphological differences. Nutrients, their accumulation in the seed. Biological functions of seeds.
7. Fungi and most important spore plant cultivars: ferns, horsetail. Their botanical systematics, organ morphology and anatomy, belonging to the relevant group of cultivated horticultural plants.
8. Growth and development of horticultural plants. Main stages and periods of development. Juvenile phase and transition to maturity. Re-juvenilization.
9. Embryonal development of horticultural plants. Seed development and maturation. Seed germination, its peculiarities in different horticultural plant species and influencing factors
10. Ecological factors influencing the growth and development of horticultural plants. Ecological and climatic requirements of different horticultural plant species. Importance of changing seasons in plant life. Importance and influence of light, water and temperature on plant life processes.
11. Flowering, pollination and fertilization of horticultural plants. Flowering peculiarities of different horticultural plant species. Flower bud initiation, factors affecting it and hormonal regulation. Development of flower buds. Types of pollination. Factors, affecting pollination in different horticultural plant species. Fertilization, factors affecting it and regulation. Self-pollination, cross-pollination, self-fertility, self-sterility, parthenocarpia.
12. Biology of horticultural plant yield formation. Fruit growth, maturation and ripening. Peculiarities of growth and ripening of different types of horticultural plant fruits. Biochemical and physiological changes in the fruit during maturation.
13. Factors affecting yield quantity and quality. Fruit color formation, processes and conditions affecting it. Physiological damage of the fruit during growth and storage, its determining factors and their control possibilities.
14. Horticultural plant dormancy period, its peculiarities. Hardening, frost-hardiness, winter hardiness. Required chilling period. Endodormancy and ecodormancy. Tissue frost damages. Winter hardiness of different parts of the plant. Winter hardiness of different species of plants.
15. Potential impact of climate change on the growth and development of horticultural plants, their yield quality and quantity

16. Biology of storage of horticultural plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers). Aging and senescence of plants and possibilities of its regulation. Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. Ethylene. Respiration and transpiration. Use of storage regimes and fruit post-harvest treatments to slow down ripening and senescence

Requirements for awarding credit points

An exam.

Students, who have successfully presented their presentation in the seminars and submited and presented an essay, can pass the exam.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

1. Each student prepares a presentation (research of scientific and professional literature) for a seminar on the topic, agreed with the lecturer, from the course content. The work is presented to the student group at the seminar. Approximate length of presentation is 30 minutes. The student should be able to answer questions, discuss the topic and justify his / her opinion.

2. The student does literature review on the topic from the course content, agreed with the lecturer, and submits it in the form of the essay. Volume: 10-20 pages, at least 10 sources of literature are used, at least 50% of which are scientific publications. The main findings of this review are presented by the student in a short presentation (up to 15 minutes), student can discuss the given topic and answer the questions reasonably

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The final mark consists of the exam mark (50%) and the average mark from the seminar and the essay during the semester (50%).

Compulsory reading

1. Ieviņš Ģ. Augu fizioloģija. Funkcijas un mijiedarbība ar vidi. Rīga: LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2016. 607 lpp.
2. Mauriņa H. Augu fizioloģija. Rīga: Zvaigzne, 1987. 358 lpp.
3. Augļkopība. Red. L. Ikase. Dobeles novads: LV Augļkopības institūts, 2015. 544 lpp.
4. Temperate and subtropical fruit production. D. I. Jackson, N. E. Looney (ed.). 2nd edition. UK: CABI Publishing, 2006. 332 p.
5. The Encyclopedia of Fruit and Nuts. J. Janick, R.E. Paull. (ed.). Wallingford, UK; Cambridge, MA: CAB International, 2008. 954 p.
6. Fundamentals of Temperate Zone Tree Fruit Production. Ed. by J. Tromp, A.D. Webster, S.J.Wetheim. Leiden: Backuys Publishers, 2005. 400 p.
7. Wills R.B.H., McGlasson W.B., Graham D., Joyce D.C. Postharvest. An introduction to the physiology and handling of fruit, vegetables and ornamentals. 5th edition. UK: CABI Publishing, 2007. 227 p
8. Bumbura M., Jaudzeme V., Muižarāja E., Pētersone (1967). Augu morfoloģija un anatomija.- Rīga: Zvaigzne. 507 lpp.
9. Modern technology in vegetable production (2011)/ed. by P. Hazra. Pitam Pura, New Delhi : New India Publishing Agency,413
10. Salunkhe D. K. Salunkhe, Kadam S. S.(1998) Handbook of vegetable science and technology: production, composition, storage, and processing CRC Press, 721 p.
11. Brickell C. (2010) RHS Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers. Great Britain: Dorling Kindersley. 744 p.

12. Plant propagation : Principles and practices (1997). Hudson T. Hartmann, Dale E. Kester, Fred T. Davies a.o. Upper Saddle River, (NJ) : Prentice Hall, 770 p.

Further reading

1. Improving the health-promoting properties of fruit end vegetable products. F.A.Tomas-Barberan, M.I.Gil (ed.). England: Woodhead Publishing, 2008. 559 p.
2. Sudrabs J. 1960 Augļkopība. Rīga: LVI, 679. lpp (arī citi laidumi)
3. Skrīvele M., Ikase L. 2013. Latvijas ābeles. Rīga: Jumava, 136 lpp.
4. Kārkliņš J., Skrīvele M., Kaufmane E., Ikase L. 2007. Plūmju šķirnes. LVAI, Dobele, 204 lpp.
5. Kārkliņš J. 2004. Bumbieru šķirnes. Dobele, 299 lpp.
6. Ruisa S., Kaufmane E. 2008. Ķiršu, aprikožu un persiku šķirnes. Latvijas Pomoloģija, Izd. Latvijas Valsts Augļkopības institūts, 216 lpp.
7. Strautiņa S., Kalniņa I. 2019. Avenes un to audzēšana. Rīga: Jumava,
8. Strautiņa S., Kaufmane E. 2011. Dobeles ceriņi. Rīga: Jumava, 96.lpp.
9. Skrīvele M., Rubauskis E., Strautiņa S. 2011. Augļu koku un ogulāju veidošana. Rīga: Zvaigzne ABC, 96.lpp.
10. Vēsturiskie dārzi. Šķirņu katalogs. Kviklys D., Gelvonauskiene D., Karkleliene R., Juškevičiene D., Dambrauskiene E., Uselis N., Lanauskas J., Ikase L., Lepse L., Kaufmane E., Feldmane D., Dēķena Dz., Zeipiņa S. Babtai: Lietuvos agrarinių ir miškų mokslų centras filialas Sodininkystės ir daržininkystės institutas, 2019. 175 p.
brīvpieejas informācijas avots:
11. Valero, Daniel. Postharvest biology and technology for preserving fruit quality [elektroniskais resurss] / Daniel Valero and Maria Serrano. Boca Raton, Fla. : Taylor & Francis Group, 2010. 287 p.
12. Gough, Bob. An encyclopedia of small fruit [elektroniskais resurss] / Bob Gough. Binghamton, N.Y. : Haworth Food & Agricultural Products Press, c2007. 161 p.
13. Taiz L., Zeiger E. Plant Physiology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2006. 764 p.

14. Rosa L. A., Alvarez-Parrilla E., González-Aguilar G A. Fruit and vegetable phytochemicals :chemistry, nutritional value and stability, Ames, Iowa, (2010) Wiley-Blackwell, 367 p.

Periodicals and other sources

1. ISHS izdevums "Acta Horticulturae" ISSN: 0567-7572
2. Westwood M.N. Temperate-zone pomology physiology and culture. 3rd edition. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press, 1993. 523 p.
3. Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences. brīvpieejas informācijas avots: un konkrēti 2017. gada 71. sējums Nr. 3:
2013. gada 67. sējums Nr.2:
4. Zinātniski praktisko konferenču “Līdzsvarota Lauksaimniecība” rakstu krājumi, kas ir brīvpieejas informācijas avots:

5. “Profesionālā Dārzkopība” - e-žurnāls brīvpieejas informācijas avots:


Restricted Elective Course in academic master study program “Agriculture” specialization in Horticulture.