Course code LauZ5162

Credit points 3

Technology of Milk Production

Total Hours in Course120

Number of hours for lectures24

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes24

Independent study hours72

Date of course confirmation26.02.2019

Responsible UnitInstitute of Animal Science

Prior knowledge

Ekon5123, Investments for Rural Development

LauZ5143, Biological Basis of Animal Husbandry

LauZ5160, Animal Genetics and Breeding

Course abstract

During the study course Master students get acquainted with animal species used for milk production, production technologies, factors influencing milk quality. Knowledge of the chemical composition of milk, the factors influencing it. Acquaintance with existing legislation on milk quality control, measures to ensure the composition and quality of livestock raw materials. Evaluate milk production costs, explains the basic principles of their formation.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Students acquire knowledge about animal species used for milk production in Latvia, milk production technologies, chemical composition and quality of milk, methods of their determination and factors influencing it, about milk production costs for processing (presentations prepared, successfully passed examination).
Skills to choose the milk producing varieties most suitable for milk production, to justify the choice of technologies used for milk production, to evaluate the changes in the chemical composition and quality of milk and the factors influencing them, to estimate milk production costs (prepared presentations, successfully passed exam).
Competent to decide on the choice of dairy technology to independently carry out scientific research, study and analyse scientific and professional literature in dairy farming.
Prepared and presented presentations on the topic of the seminar, material of the lectures of the course. Successfully passed the exam

Course Content(Calendar)

1. The economic importance of milk production, the species, the varieties and the crosses used, the characteristics of their productivity. Genetic suitability of dairy cows and dairy goats for dairy production.
2. The requirements and implementation of the International Committee of Animal Recording (ICAR) in Latvia.
3. Effect of dairy animals balanced nutrition on milk yield, milk composition and quality variation.
Seminar: Factors affecting milk yield, milk composition and quality changes.
4. Feeding related metabolic disorders in dairy animals.
5. Technologies for keeping, welfare, and udder health of dairy animals.
6. Milk composition and quality parameters, legislation.
7. Methods and equipment for the determination of milk chemical composition.
8. Methods and equipment for the determination of milk quality.
9. Milk composition and quality change during pre-treatment and storage of milk on the farm.
10. Visit to the Milk testing laboratory.
Seminar: Milk quality and composition testing methods and laboratory selection, justification of this choice.
11. Visit of Milk processing company.
12. Milk production costs, their optimization possibilities for dairy animals.
Seminar: Economy of milk production.

Requirements for awarding credit points

Worked and answered practical works, presentation on a given topic, study course lecture material. Successfully passed the exam.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

The organization of independent work during the semester takes place independently by studying literature using the consultations of the lecturer. Fives seminars have been developed and publicly defended.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

The assessment of the study course exam depends on the assessment of the examination assignment and the cumulative assessment of the study course seminars.
A student can get a successful mark on the exam if at least 50% of the test questions are answered correctly and 3 workshops are presented.
The exam grade is calculated as the arithmetic mean of the two, the exam assignments and the average marks for the presented seminars, which is calculated as the average of the marks of the seminars arranged in the study course.

Compulsory reading

1. Moderna piena ražošanas ferma: tehnoloģija, tehnika, apsaimniekošana. J.Priekuļa red. Jelgava: LLU, 2013. 240 lpp.
2. Piliena K., Sprūžs J. Kazkopība. Talsi, 2007. 99 lpp. .
3. Achieving sustainable production of milk. Volume 1: Milk composition, genetics and breeding. Edited by Dr Nico van Belzen. Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited: 2017. 339 p.
4. Osītis U. Dzīvnieku ēdināšana kompleksā skatījumā. Jelgava: LLKC, 2005. 2004. 320 lpp.
5. Ciproviča I., Ozola L. Piena pārstrādes tehnoloģija. Jelgava: LLU, 2002. 247 lpp.
6. Dairy science and technology handbook. Edited by Y.H. Hui. New York etc.: VCH, 1993. 3 vol.

Further reading

1. Latvijas Nacionālā standartizācijas institūcija „Latvijas standarts” (LVS). [Tiešsaiste] [skatīts 28.02.2019.]. Pieejams:
2. Latvijas Nacionālais akreditācijas birojs. Testēšanas laboratorijas. [Tiešsaiste] Pieejams:
3. Likumi. [Tiešsaiste] [skatīts 28.02.2019.]. Pieejams:
4. Cilstsdarba programmas piena šķirņu govkopībā un kazkopībā [tiešsaiste] [skatīts 05.02.2019.]. Pieejams:

Periodicals and other sources

1. International Dairy Journal. Published by Elsevier Science. ISSN: 0958-6946. [Skatīts 05.02.2019.]. Pieejams datubāzē Science Direct:
2. Journal of Small Ruminant Research. Official Journal of the International Goat Association. ISSN:0921-4488 3.
3. Agronomy Research. ISSN 1406-894X raksti.
4. Zinātniski praktiskās konferences "Līdzsvarota lauksaimniecība" raksti. ISSN 2501-0166
5. International Dairy Federation
6. LLKC mājaslapa:
7. AgroTops. Rīga: Aģentūra Agro apgāds. ISSN 1407-5164.
8. Žurnāls ISSN 1691-1598
9. Latvijas Lopkopis. Žurnāls LLKC izdevums.
10. Latvijas Piensaimnieku savienība


Obligatory course for Master study programme “Agriculture” specialisation Animal husbandry