Course code LauZ5126

Credit points 5

Field Crops I

Total Hours in Course200

Number of hours for lectures24

Number of hours for seminars and practical classes56

Independent study hours120

Date of course confirmation22.03.2011

Responsible UnitInstitute of Soil and Plant Science

Course developer

author Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūts

Zinta Gaile

Dr. agr.

Prior knowledge

LauZ5135, Bio-ecological Base of Crop Production

Course abstract

Economical importance, biological characteristics, grain chemical composition and quality of cereals (wheat, rye, barley, oat, triticale; other crops: maize etc.) and pulses (peas, beens, lupin, vetch etc.). Individuality of yield and its quality forming: cereals and pulses. Impact of agro-ecological factors on growing and development. Management practices (soil treatment, planting, crop-fields cultivation etc.) for getting economically reasonable yields of different cereal species and varieties. Usage of cereals and pulses for food, feed and energy purposes. Annual and biennial field crops for biomass production for forage and bio-energy. Seed production and certiffication of cereals and pulses.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knowledge – on biology and growing technology of cereals and pulses, annual and biennial biomass plants, and on use of yield according evaluated quality, including for seed (1st and 2nd test works, both oral reports and accomplishment of tasks during study trips).
Skills – to use growing technology according to biologic demands of field crops included in the study course, as well as to evaluated consequences of wrong technological method and to soften this negative effect with the next operation; to evaluate interaction of agronomic and meteorological factors; to evaluate quality of crops’ yield for different purposes; to define the most appropriate way of crops’ yield use according the specific quality: for food, feed, seed or bio-energy (term paper and accomplishment of tasks during study trips).

Competence – to manage production and/or advisory work, as well as to perform self-dependent scientific research using crops included into study course; to study and to analyze scientific and other literature on mentioned crops (term paper).

Course Content(Calendar)

1. Cereals. Botanical origin of cereals, genera, species, sub-species, their scientific names.
2. Grain structure, chemical composition, energy value. Product types obtained from cereals.
3. Grain quality for different ways of usage. Possibilities to influence the quality.
4. Cereal sowing areas and productivity in the world, Europe and Latvia.
5. Growth and development of cereals. Phenological phases and decimal code. Critical periods in the development of cereals.
6. Yield components, their formation and interaction. Cereal lodgings, their essence.
7. Winter and spring crops, their biological differences. Wintering and opportunities to influence the winter hardiness of cereals.
8. Spring cereals and their agro-ecological requirements.
9. Winter cereals and their agro-ecological requirements.
10. Cereal cultivation technologies, their relation to grain use, and their agro-economical evaluation.
11. Usefulness of maize for feed and biogas production in Latvian conditions.
12. Millet, sorghum, rice; their agro-biological characteristics and economic importance.
13. Buckwheat: characterisation, agro-ecological requirements, growing in the world and in Latvia.
14. Pulses, their agro-biological characterisation, botanical origin. The problem of protein production.
15. Peas, vetches, field beans, lupines and soy – characterisation, agro-ecological requirements. Other pulses used elsewhere in the world.
16. Annual and biennial plants for green bio-mass production, usage of green bio-mass as feed and for energy production.
17. Cabbage family (Brassicaceae) plants, sunflowers, mallow etc. plants for green bio-mass production, their characterisation, agro-ecological requirements.
18. Principles for selecting the species and varieties most useful for a specific farm.

19. Seed production of cereals and pulses: variety and reasons for varieties’ deterioration, seed production legislation, seed certification: field inspection, seed quality assessment, post-control; agro-technological peculiarities of seed-field cultivation.

Requirements for awarding credit points

1. Lecture attendance at LLU is mandatory.
2. Two written tests 1) on cereals; 2) on pulses; gets a grade.
3. Prepares two oral reports with illustrative Power Point slides: 1) on cereals; 2) on pulses. Gets “passed” that can influence the final grade in + or – direction.
4. Hands in term paper – gets a grade.
5. Participates in study trips, completes tasks set out before the trip and gets “passed”.
6. All works should be completed as successfully.
7. Assessment of all “passed” term works builds up 80% of exam evaluation.
8. The remaining 20% are obtained in a written exam, where 2 questions of choice are answered, each question forms 10% of final grade.

If not all works have been evaluated with a successful mark, it is not allowed to take the exam.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

• Each Master student prepares two 15 min reports (in PowerPoint):
1) On a topic by choice on cereals;
2) On a topic by choice on pulses.
• Completes a term paper, gets 1 CP from the total 5 CP’s. Each master student bring a grain sample from his farm (or his parents’ farm; or from the farm where he works or attends research practice), all quality aspects of that grain sample are evaluated at LLU LF Grain and Seed Study-research laboratory; performs research in the farm on agro-technological methods of such quality grain growing, analyses meteorological conditions that might have influenced the grain quality, and makes proposals on changes in agro-technology, or draws conclusions on what unfaltering determined the achieved quality indicators. Gets a grade.
Word format; prepared according to LF rules, including all research report chapters. Preferred volume: 5 – 15 pages without appendixes and list of literature.
• Participates in organized visits with specific tasks. Visits can be organized to VAAD seed control department, to any of grain buying companies; to any agricultural company, to a scientific seminar in RSF Vecauce or elsewhere – according to the activities of current year.
• If you do not participate in the visit, you prepare a written report on the topic (Word format) based on at least 10 scientific articles in English. Evaluation – “passed”.
• On some topics guest lectures are organized, attracting foreign guest lecturers, if possible, or guest lecturers from AREI Stende and Priekuļi Research Centres.

• If the guest lecture is not attended – a written report on its topic is prepared (Word format). Evaluation – “passed”.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

Works, assessed with passed/failed: work completed in accordance with requirements set out in the previous paragraph; reports – to be presented to the group of Master students.
Tests evaluated with a grade: evaluated according to the grade scale from 1–10.
Term paper is evaluated with a grade according to the grade scale from 1–10, focusing on such aspects:
1) Term paper layout logic;
2) Result completeness and grain quality linkage to used agro-technology – specific farm analysis, justification from literature;
3) The ability to evaluate the quality of analysed sample in comparison with grain quality requirements set out for various types of processing;
4) Conclusions and suggestions, their logic, professionalism.

5) Correct usage of professional and scientific terminology

Compulsory reading

1. Augkopība (2004). Ruža A. (red.) Jelgava: LLU, 374 lpp.
2. Bankina B., Gaile Z. (2014). Ziemāju labības un to slimības. Jelgava: LLU, 104 lpp.
3. Copeland L.O., McDonald M.B. (1995). Principles of Seed Science and Technology. 3rd Edition. USA: Chapman & Hall, P. 409.
4. Encyclopaedia of Seed Production of World Crops (1998). Kelly A.F., George R.A.T. (eds) Chicester: Wiley, 403 lpp.
5. Gaile Z., Bartuševics J. (2012). Kukurūzas audzēšanas un izmantošana. Jelgava: LLU, 40 lpp.
6. Kunkulberga D., Ruža A. (2009). Kviešu un rudzu graudu uzturvērtība un izmantošana maizes ražošanā. Jelgava: LLU, 55 lpp.
7. Newman R.K., Newman C.W. (2008). Barley for Food and Health. Science, Technology and Products. [s.l.]: Wiley&Sons, 223 p. Atrodama Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūtā.
8. Modern corn and soybean production. First edition (2000). Hoeft R.G., Nafziger E.D., Johnson R.R., Aldriht S.R. (eds.) USA: MCSP Publications, 353 p. Atrodama Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūtā.
9. The oat crop. Production and utilization (1995). Welch R.W. (ed.) [s.l.]: Chapman&Hall, 584 p.
10. Wheat: Science and Trade. First edition. (2009). Carver B.F. (ed.) [s.l.]: Wiley-Blackwell, 569 p. Atrodama Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūtā.
11. Агрономия (2001). Под редакцией В.Д. Мухи. Москва: Колос, 504 с. Atrodama lasītavā.

12. Зерновые культуры (2000). Шпаар Д. (ред.) Минск: ФУ Аинформ, 398 c. Atrodama Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūtā.

Further reading

1. Freimanis P., Jurševskis L., Lauva J., Ruża A. (1980). Augkopības praktikums. Rīga: Zvaigzne, 327 lpp.

2. Jurševskis L. Holms I., Freimanis P. (1988). Augkopība. Rīga: Zvaigzne, 569 lpp. Atrodama bibliotēkā.

Periodicals and other sources

Zinātniskie žurnāli un rakstu krājumi, kas pieejami LLU FB abonētajās datu bāzēs, piemēram: Rural Sustainability Research (LLU Raksti), Agronomijas Vēstis, Agronomy Research, Žemdirbyste=Agriculture, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Sec. B Soil and Plant Science, LF konferenču un semināru Rakstu krājumi utt. – atbilstoši tematikai.


Specialization course for Academic Master study program “Agriculture”, sub-direction “Field-crop Cultivation” in 3rd semester.