Course code LauZ4228

Credit points 4

Crop Protection

Total Hours in Course64

Number of hours for lectures24

Number of hours for laboratory classes40

Date of course confirmation27.09.2011

Responsible UnitInstitute of Soil and Plant Science

Course developer

author Augsnes un augu zinātņu institūts

Gunita Bimšteine

Dr. agr.

Prior knowledge

LauZ3170, Entomology

LauZ4252, Plant Pathology

Course abstract

The students are acquainted with the selection of agrochemicals and application methods for crop protection which are based on the physical, chemical and toxicological properties and economic indices of agrochemicals. Knowledge of mode of action of pesticides on pests and elements of environment, resistance of pests and pathogens against to pesticides are the fundamentals of crop protection as integrated science are the essential parts of academic programme.

Learning outcomes and their assessment

Knowledge about registered plant protection products in Latvia, their classification, modes of action, application technologies, toxic qualities and impact on the environment and resistance risk control. of the harmful organisms control opportunities, and economic efficiency.
Skills will allow to students assess the situation in individual farms and make a decision on plant protection systems.
Competently evaluate the effectiveness of protective measures, as well as a compliance with plat protection law and regulatory documents, and draw up the projects.

Course outcome evaluation:
During semester after gaining knowledge about specified parts of the course, students are expected to write multiple different tests.
Work in groups and seminary – the most widespread pests, weeds and diseases in the commonly grown crops in Latvia and argumentative defence about student created plant protection systems.
Independent studies during semester – harmful organism control system for random crop using plant protection products
At the end of the course students are required to take exam.

Course plan

1. Harmful organism damage impact on loses. Plant protection system in Latvia. Pesticide use regulation. Plant protection law. Used methods in plant protection.
2. Work safety in plant protection. Introduction with individual safety measures/devices.
3. Classification of the pesticides in order to their: chemical composition, harmful organism they control, penetration mechanism into organism, effect characteristics and mode of action.
4. Agronomic toxicology. Toxicology science and its main focus for investigation. Concept of poisoning and poisons. Pesticide toxicity. Poison dose as a measure of toxicity. Threshold dose, lethal dose. Quantitative toxicity measures and their determination via experimentation.
5. Pesticide toxicity and factors determining it. Effect of poisonous substances depending on their chemical composition and structure. Selectivity of pesticide toxicity. Concept of selectivity. Selectivity coefficient. Factors determining selectivity.
6. Harmful organism pesticide resistance. Natural and acquired resistance. Control of harmful organism resistance. Importance of regular plant protection product change.
7. Impact of pesticides in the environment. Circulation of the pesticides in the environment. Pesticide preservation in the air, water and soil. Pesticide movement and decomposition in the soil. Role of soil microorganisms in the pesticide decomposition process.
8. Pesticide toxicity. Pesticide classification according to their acute toxicity. Pesticide volatility. Cumulative ability and cumulative coefficient. Cancerogenity. Embryotoxicity. Mutagenicity. Teratogenicity. Allergic qualities. Sensibility.
9. Pesticide preparative forms: wettable powders, emulsion concentrate, granules, dispersible granules, suspension concentrates, emulsion concentrates, water solutions etc. Pesticide additives: Diluents. Emulsifiers and stabilizers. Surfactants. Additives which improve pesticide physicochemical properties.
10. Pesticide application methods: Plant spraying. Sprinkling. Seat treatment and seed treatment types. Dry, wet and liquid seed treatment. Seed pelleting. Closed space fumigation. Soil treatment with pesticides. Evaluation of pesticide application methods.
11. Machinery used for plant protection product application – sprayers and sprinklers and their variations. Sprayer description and calibration.
12. Pesticides for pest control: insecticides, insectoacaricides, acaricides and their classification. Systemic plant intoxicating and contact - intestine insecticides. Biologically active substances for pest control and monitoring.
13. Fungicides. Fungicide classification. Fungicide selectivity. Economical and biological argumentation for fungicide use. Contact – preventative effect fungicides. Contact- preventative and curative effect fungicides. Systemic fungicides.
14. Fungicides used as seed treatment. Contact, systemic and combined effect seed treatments. Biological crop protection agents for disease control.
15. Herbicides. Herbicide classification. Contact and systemic herbicides. Peculiarities of herbicide selectivity. Herbicide mode of action, herbicide application methods and deadlines. Determination of herbicide dose. Work solution volumes.

16. Defoliants an desiccants. Plant growth regulators.

Requirements for awarding credit points

Written exam, which can be passed after finishing all laboratory works, getting passing grades in all tests and successful written report defence.
If in all tests and written report defence all grades are 7 or higher, there is a possibility to get accumulative grade for exam.

Description of the organization and tasks of students’ independent work

Written report about plant protection system management using plant protection products and harmful organism description for random crop which was already chosen in Plant protection I
Independent literature and regulatory document studies, in preparation for tests.

Criteria for Evaluating Learning Outcomes

1. Laboratory work grading – done/ not done.
2. Test grade is depending on scored points per test (20 questions from which 16 needs to be correct).
3. Required pesticide dose calculations – together 10 questions from which 9 need to be correct to get passing grade.

Criteria for report evaluation: report defence and author’s ability to discuss and give answers on asked questions about report content. Report must be formatted accordingly with Agriculture Faculty’s requirements for study works.

Compulsory reading

1. Latvijas Republikā reģistrēto augu aizsardzības līdzekļu saraksts Rīga:VAAD/ik gadus.
2. World Compendium The Pesticide Manual (2006): Ed –in-chief. C.D.S Tomlin, BCPC, 1348p.

3. Turka I. (2003) Pesticīdu lietošana augu aizsardzībā.LLKC,Ozolnieki. 159 lpp.

Further reading

1. Augkopība. A.Ružas red. Turka I. Sadaļa Augu aizsardzība. Jelgava, 2004. 69-88, 173-181, 190 -196, 242-245 lpp.
2. Labas Lauksaimniecības prakses nosacījumi Latvijā. Rīga, LRZM, 2008. 56 lpp.
3. Smidzinātāju rokasgrāmata. Autori: J.Āboltiņš u.c. LLKC. Ozolnieki, 2001. 144 lpp.

Periodicals and other sources

1. Saimnieks LV. Rīga: TEE BIO, 2004- ISSN 1691-1598.
2. AgroTops. Rīga: Aģentūra Agro apgāds. ISSN 1407-5164.